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Ace is an embeddable code editor written in JavaScript


Ace is an embeddable code editor written in JavaScript.
It fits the parts and efficiency of native
editors corresponding to Gracious, Vim and TextMate. It might per chance well most likely perhaps well per chance also additionally be without misfortune embedded
in any web web page and JavaScript utility. Ace is maintained as the
necessary editor for Cloud9 IDE
and is the successor of the Mozilla Skywriter (Bespin) mission.

/Actually, you take a glimpse at ACE correct now. Move ahead and play with it!
 We are currently exhibiting off the JavaScript mode. ACE has beef up for 45
 language modes and 24 coloration themes!

feature add(x, y) {
    var resultString = "Hello, ACE! The implications of your math is: ";
    var consequence = x + y;
    return resultString + consequence;

var addResult = add(3, 2);

Attempting to gain a more fleshy-featured demo? Take a look at out the
kitchen sink.


  • Syntax highlighting for over 110 languages (TextMate/Gracious Textual assert material.tmlanguage recordsdata might per chance well per chance also additionally be imported)
  • Over 20 themes (TextMate/Gracious Textual assert material .tmtheme recordsdata might per chance well per chance also additionally be imported)
  • Computerized indent and outdent
  • An no longer mandatory enlighten line
  • Handles mountainous documents (four million traces appears to be the restrict!)
  • Completely customizable key bindings including vim and Emacs modes
  • Search and substitute with traditional expressions
  • Spotlight matching parentheses
  • Toggle between relaxed tabs and accurate tabs
  • Displays hidden characters
  • Inch and plunge text the utilization of the mouse
  • Line wrapping
  • Code folding
  • A pair of cursors and picks
  • Live syntax checker (currently JavaScript/CoffeeScript/CSS/XQuery)
  • Chop, reproduction, and paste efficiency

Catch the Originate-Source Code

Ace is a neighborhood mission. We actively abet and beef up
contributions! The Ace source code is hosted on GitHub
and released under the BSD license &drag;
very simple and gracious to all kinds of projects, whether or no longer birth-source
or no longer. Win cost of your editor and add your favorite language
highlighting and keybindings!

git clone git://

Ancient previous

Skywriter/Bespin and Ace began
as two just projects each and every aiming to set aside a no compromise
code editor element for the rep. Bespin began as phase of
Mozilla Labs and used to be in line with the label, whereas Ace is
the editor element of Cloud9 IDE
and uses the DOM for rendering. After the starting up of Ace at
JSConf.european 2010
in Berlin the Skywriter group determined to merge Ace with a simplified
model of Skywriter’s plugin plot and a few of Skywriter’s
extensibility components. All these adjustments had been merged support to Ace
now, which supersedes Skywriter. Both Cloud9 IDE
and Mozilla are actively increasing and
affirming Ace.

Connected Projects

In all of these examples Ace has been invoked
as shown in the embedding knowledge.

Configuring the editor

there are so much of systems to pass configuration to Ace

// pass ideas to ace.edit
ace.edit(element, {
    mode: "ace/mode/javascript",
    selectionStyle: "text"
// use setOptions formulation to location so much of ideas in the present day
    autoScrollEditorIntoView: correct,
    copyWithEmptySelection: correct,
// use setOptions formulation
editor.setOption("mergeUndoDeltas", "at all times");

// some ideas are additionally available as systems e.g. 

// to get the price of the selection use

Gaze Configuring-Ace wiki page for a more detailed listing of ideas.

Changing the size of the editor

Ace supreme checks for adjustments of the size of or no longer it is container when window is resized. Have to you resize the editor div in a single other formulation, and wish Ace to resize, use the following:


whereas you would delight in editor to substitute or no longer it is dimension in line with contents, use maxLines option as shown in

Surroundings Issues

Issues are loaded on seek knowledge from; all you might per chance well per chance per chance also must attain is pass the string title:


> Gaze all themes

Surroundings the Programming Language Mode

By default, the editor supports simple text mode. All other language modes will more than likely be found as separate modules, loaded on seek knowledge from delight in this:


One Editor, A pair of Sessions

Ace keeps all the pieces regarding the articulate of the editor (decision, scroll location, etc.)
in editor.session. This means you might per chance well per chance per chance also employ the
session, retailer it in a var, and placement the editor to 1 other session (e.g. a tabbed editor).

You might per chance well also construct this delight in so:

var EditSession = require("ace/edit_session").EditSession;
var js = new EditSession("some js code");
var css = new EditSession(["some", "css", "code here"]);
// and then to load doc into editor, factual call

Overall Operations

Exclaim and get assert material:

editor.setValue("the brand new text here");
editor.session.setValue("the brand new text here"); // location cost and reset undo history
editor.getValue(); // or session.getValue

Catch selected text:

editor.getSelectedText(); // or for a particular differ

Insert at cursor, emulating user input:

editor.insert("Something chilly");

Substitute text in differ:

editor.session.substitute(new ace.Vary(0, 0, 1, 1), "new text");

Catch the present cursor line and column:


Move to a line:


Catch total number of traces:


Exclaim the default tab dimension:


Spend relaxed tabs:


Exclaim the font dimension:


Toggle word wrapping:


Exclaim line highlighting:


Exclaim the print margin visibility:


Exclaim the editor to read-supreme:

editor.setReadOnly(correct);  // untrue to kind it editable

The use of undo manager

To neighborhood undo delta of the following edit with the outdated one location `mergeUndoDeltas` to correct

editor.session.mergeUndoDeltas = correct; 
editor.session.insert({row: 0, column:0}, Date()+"");

To birth up new undo neighborhood use `markUndoGroup` formulation


To disable undo of a an edit in a collaborative editor

var rev = session.$undoManager.startNewGroup(); // birth up new undo neighborhood
... // apply the edit 
session.$undoManager.markIgnored(rev); // heed the brand new neighborhood as no longer renowned

To put in force undo/redo buttons glance


    backwards: untrue,
    wrap: untrue,
    caseSensitive: untrue,
    wholeWord: untrue,
    regExp: untrue

The following ideas will more than likely be found to you to your search parameters:

  • needle: The string or traditional expression you are purchasing for
  • backwards: Whether to search backwards from where cursor currently is. Defaults to untrue.
  • wrap: Whether to wrap the quest support to the starting up effect when it hits the quit. Defaults to untrue.
  • caseSensitive: Whether the quest might per chance well per chance also soundless be case-sensitive. Defaults to untrue.
  • wholeWord: Whether the quest fits supreme on entire words. Defaults to untrue.
  • differ: The Vary to search within. Exclaim this to null for the total doc
  • regExp: Whether the quest is a typical expression or no longer. Defaults to untrue.
  • birth up: The starting up Vary or cursor location to birth up the quest
  • skipCurrent: Whether or no longer to incorporate the present line in the quest. Default to untrue.
  • preventScroll: Whether or no longer to transfer the cursor to the following match. Default to untrue.

Here is the methodology you might per chance well per chance per chance also compose a substitute:


And here’s a substitute all:


(editor.replaceAll uses the needle location earlier by editor.gain('needle', ...)

Being attentive to Events

To hear for an onchange:

editor.session.on('exchange', feature(delta) {
    // delta.birth up, delta.quit, delta.traces, delta.action

To hear for an decision exchange:

editor.session.decision.on('changeSelection', feature(e) {

To hear for a cursor exchange:

editor.session.decision.on('changeCursor', feature(e) {

Adding Current Commands and Keybindings

To place key bindings to a custom feature:

    title: 'myCommand',
    bindKey: {employ: 'Ctrl-M',  mac: 'Voice-M'},
    exec: feature(editor) {
    readOnly: correct // untrue if this enlighten might per chance well per chance also soundless no longer apply in readOnly mode

Configure dynamic loading of modes and themes

By default ace detcts the url for dynamic loading by finding the script node for ace.js.
This doesn’t work if ace.js is no longer loaded with a separate script label, and in this case it is required to location url explicitely

ace.config.location("basePath", "");

Direction for one module alone might per chance well per chance also additionally be configured with:

ace.config.setModuleUrl("ace/theme/textmate", "url for textmate.js");

When the utilization of ace with webpack, it is that you just might per chance well per chance per chance also deem of to configure paths for all submodules the utilization of


which depends on file-loader

Developing a brand new syntax highlighter for Ace is amazingly simple. You might per chance well must account for two pieces of code: a brand new mode, and a brand new location of highlighting solutions.

The effect to Originate

We recommend the utilization of the Ace Mode Creator when defining your highlighter. This lets you scrutinize your code’s tokens, to boot to offering a live preview of the syntax highlighter in action.

Defining a Mode

Every language wants a mode. A mode contains the paths to a language’s syntax highlighting solutions, indentation solutions, and code folding solutions. With out defining a mode, Ace acquired’t know anything regarding the finer parts of your language.

Here is the starter template we will use to kind a brand new mode:

account for(feature(require, exports, module) {
"use strict";

var oop = require("../lib/oop");
// defines the parent mode
var TextMode = require("./text").Mode;
var Tokenizer = require("../tokenizer").Tokenizer;
var MatchingBraceOutdent = require("./matching_brace_outdent").MatchingBraceOutdent;

// defines the language particular highlighters and folding solutions
var MyNewHighlightRules = require("./mynew_highlight_rules").MyNewHighlightRules;
var MyNewFoldMode = require("./folding/mynew").MyNewFoldMode;

var Mode = feature() {
    // location all the pieces up
    this.HighlightRules = MyNewHighlightRules;
    this.$outdent = new MatchingBraceOutdent();
    this.foldingRules = new MyNewFoldMode();
oop.inherits(Mode, TextMode);

(feature() {
    // configure relate birth up/quit characters
    this.lineCommentStart = "//";
    this.blockComment = {birth up: "/*", quit: "*/"};
    // particular logic for indent/outdent. 
    // By default ace keeps indentation of outdated line
    this.getNextLineIndent = feature(articulate, line, tab) {
        var indent = this.$getIndent(line);
        return indent;

    this.checkOutdent = feature(articulate, line, input) {
        return this.$outdent.checkOutdent(line, input);

    this.autoOutdent = feature(articulate, doc, row) {
        this.$outdent.autoOutdent(doc, row);
    // kind worker for live syntax checking
    this.createWorker = feature(session) {
        var worker = new WorkerClient(["ace"], "ace/mode/mynew_worker", "NewWorker");
        worker.on("errors", feature(e) {
        return worker;

exports.Mode = Mode;

What is occurring on here? First, you are defining the path to TextMode (more on this later). Then you definately are pointing the mode to your definitions for the highlighting solutions, to boot to your solutions for code folding. Sooner or later, you are setting all the pieces up to gain those solutions, and exporting the Mode so that it might per chance perhaps perhaps well per chance also additionally be consumed. That is it!

Regarding TextMode, you will witness that or no longer it is supreme being broken-down once: oop.inherits(Mode, TextMode);. In case your new language depends on the tips of one other language, you might per chance well per chance per chance also employ to inherit the identical solutions, whereas rising on it along with your language’s possess requirements. As an instance, PHP inherits from HTML, because it might per chance perhaps perhaps well per chance also additionally be embedded straight within .html pages. You might per chance well also either inherit from TextMode, or another present mode, if it already relates to your language.

All Ace modes might per chance well per chance also additionally be demonstrate in the lib/ace/mode folder.

Defining Syntax Highlighting Principles

The Ace highlighter might per chance well per chance also additionally be regarded as to be a articulate machine. Traditional expressions account for the tokens for the present articulate, to boot to the transitions into one other articulate. Let’s account for mynew_highlight_rules.js, which our mode above uses.

All syntax highlighters birth up off taking a glimpse one thing delight in this:

account for(feature(require, exports, module) {
"use strict";

var oop = require("../lib/oop");
var TextHighlightRules = require("./text_highlight_rules").TextHighlightRules;

var MyNewHighlightRules = feature() {

    // regexp must no longer hang taking pictures parentheses. Spend (?:) as an replacement.
    // regexps are ordered -> the principle match is broken-down
   this.$solutions = {
        "birth up" : [
                token: token, // String, Array, or Function: the CSS token to apply
                regex: regex, // String or RegExp: the regexp to match
                next:  next   // [Optional] String: subsequent articulate to enter

oop.inherits(MyNewHighlightRules, TextHighlightRules);

exports.MyNewHighlightRules = MyNewHighlightRules;


The token articulate machine operates on whatever is defined in this.$solutions. The highlighter at all times begins at the birth up articulate, and progresses down the listing, purchasing for an identical regex. When one is chanced on, the following text is wrapped within a label, where is defined as the token property. Level to that every tokens are preceded by the ace_ prefix after they’re rendered on the page.

As soon as again, we’re inheriting from TextHighlightRules here. We might per chance well per chance also employ to kind this another language location we desire, if our new language requires previously defined syntaxes. For more knowledge on extending languages, glance “extending Highlighters” under.

Defining Tokens

The Ace highlighting plot is heavily impressed by the TextMate language grammar. Most tokens will practice the conventions of TextMate when naming grammars. A thorough (albeit incomplete) listing of tokens might per chance well per chance also additionally be chanced on on the Ace Wiki.

For the total listing of tokens, glance instrument/tmtheme.js. It’s far that you just might per chance well per chance per chance also deem of so that you just can add new token names, but the scope of that knowledge is exterior of this doc.

A pair of tokens might per chance well per chance also additionally be applied to the identical text by adding dots in the token, e.g. token: beef up.feature wraps the text in a label.

Defining Traditional Expressions

Traditional expressions can either be a RegExp or String definition

Have to you’re the utilization of a typical expression, endure in mind to birth up and quit the highway with the / character, delight in this:

    token : "fixed.language.drag",
    regex : /$[wd]+/

A caveat of the utilization of stringed traditional expressions is that any character should be escaped. Which methodology that even an innocuous traditional expression delight in this:

regex: "features*(w+)"

Have to in point of fact be written delight in this:

regex: "feature\s*(\w+)"


You might per chance well also additionally consist of flat regexps–(var)–or hang matching groups–((a+)(b+)). There is a strict requirement whereby matching groups must conceal your entire matched string; thus, (hel)lo is invalid. Have to that you just must kind a non-matching neighborhood, merely birth up the neighborhood with the ?: predicate; thus, (hel)(?:lo) is k. You might per chance well also, for sure, kind longer non-matching groups. As an instance:

    token : "fixed.language.boolean",
    regex : /(?:correct|untrue)b/

For flat traditional expression fits, token is usually a String, or a Feature that takes a single argument (the match) and returns a string token. As an instance, the utilization of a feature might per chance well per chance also glimpse delight in this:

var colours = lang.arrayToMap(
    ("aqua|shadowy|blue|fuchsia|gray|inexperienced|lime|maroon|navy|olive|orange|" +

var fonts = lang.arrayToMap(
    ("arial|century|droll|courier|garamond|georgia|helvetica|impact|lucida|" +
    "symbol|plot|tahoma|occasions|trebuchet|utopia|verdana|webdings|sans-serif|" +


    token: feature(cost) {
        if (colours.hasOwnProperty(cost.toLowerCase())) {
            return "beef up.fixed.coloration";
        else if (fonts.hasOwnProperty(cost.toLowerCase())) {
            return "beef up.fixed.fonts";
        else {
            return "text";
    regex: "\-?[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_\-]*"

If token is a feature,it might per chance perhaps perhaps well per chance also soundless employ the identical number of arguments as there are groups, and return an array of tokens.

For grouped traditional expressions, token is usually a String, at some stage in which case all matched groups are provided that very same token, delight in this:

    token: "identifier",
    regex: "(\w+\s*:)(\w*)"

Extra usually, though, token is an Array (of the identical dimension as the number of groups), whereby fits are given the token of the identical alignment as in the match. For a complex traditional expression, delight in defining a feature, that can perhaps well per chance also glimpse one thing delight in this:

    token : ["storage.type", "text", ""],
    regex : "(feature)(\s+)([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*\b)"

Defining States

The syntax highlighting articulate machine stays in the birth up articulate, until you account for a subsequent articulate for it to come to. At that level, the tokenizer stays in that new articulate, until it advances to 1 other articulate. Afterwards, you might per chance well per chance per chance also soundless return to the unique birth up articulate.

Here is an example:

this.$solutions = {
    "birth up" : [ {
        token : "text",
        regex : "<\!\[CDATA\[",
        next : "cdata"
    } ],

    "cdata" : [ {
        token : "text",
        regex : "\]\]>",
        subsequent : "birth up"
    }, {
        defaultToken : "text"
    } ]

On this extremely brief pattern, we’re defining some highlighting solutions for when Ace detects a tag. When one is encountered, the tokenizer moves from start into the cdata state. It remains there, applying the text token to any string it encounters. Finally, when it hits a closing ]> symbol, it returns to the birth up articulate and continues to tokenize anything.

The use of the TMLanguage Tool

There is a instrument that
will employ an present tmlanguage file and attain its supreme to develop into it into Javascript for Ace to employ. Here is what you might per chance well per chance per chance also must birth up:

  1. Within the Ace repository, navigate to the instruments folder.
  2. Bustle npm set up to set up required dependencies.
  3. Bustle node tmlanguage.js ; as an instance, node /Users/Elrond/elven.tmLanguage

Two recordsdata are created and positioned in lib/ace/mode: one for the language mode, and one for the situation of highlight solutions. You will soundless must add the code into ace/ext/modelist.js, and add a pattern file for attempting out.

A Level to on Accuracy

Your .tmlanguage file will then be transformed to the upper of the converter’s ability. It's far an underestimation to recount that the instrument is injurious. Potentially, language mode creation will by no methodology be in a location to be fully autogenerated. There is a listing of non-determinable items; as an instance:

  • The utilization of traditional expression lookbehinds

    Here is a thought that JavaScript merely does no longer hang and wants to be faked
  • Deciding which articulate to transition to

    While the instrument does kind new states accurately, it labels them with generic terms delight in state_2, state_10, e.t.c.
  • Extending modes

    Many modes sigh one thing delight in consist of source.c, to indicate, “add your entire solutions in C highlighting.” That syntax does no longer kind sense to Ace or this instrument (though for sure you might per chance well per chance per chance also extending present highlighters).
  • Rule decision characterize
  • Gathering key phrases

    In all likelihood, you’ll must employ key phrases from your language file and speed them via createKeywordMapper()

On the replacement hand, the instrument is a ideal methodology to get a brief birth up, whereas you already hang a tmlanguage file for you language.

Extending Highlighters

Voice you are working on a LuaPage, PHP embedded in HTML, or a Django template. You might per chance well must kind a syntax highlighter that takes your entire solutions from the unique language (Lua, PHP, or Python) and extends it with some extra identifiers (, , {%, as an instance). Ace lets you without misfortune extend a highlighter the utilization of about a helper functions.

Getting Existing Principles

To get the present syntax highlighting solutions for a particular language, use the getRules() feature. As an instance:

var HtmlHighlightRules = require("./html_highlight_rules").HtmlHighlightRules;

this.$solutions = new HtmlHighlightRules().getRules();

/this.$solutions == Same this.$solutions as HTML highlighting

Extending a Highlighter

The addRules formulation does one thing, and it does one thing well: it adds new solutions to an present rule location, and prefixes any articulate with a given label. As an instance, shall we embrace you might per chance well per chance per chance also hang got two sets of solutions, defined delight in this:

this.$solutions = {
    "birth up": [ /... */ ]

var newRules = {
    "birth up": [ /... */ ]

Have to that you just must incorporate newRules into this.$solutions, you would attain one thing delight in this:

this.addRules(newRules, "new-");

/this.$solutions = {
        "birth up": [ ... ],
        "new-birth up": [ ... ]

Extending Two Highlighters

The closing feature available to you combines each and every of these ideas, and or no longer it is known as embedRules. It takes three parameters:

  1. An present rule location to embed with
  2. A prefix to apply for every articulate in the present rule location
  3. A location of latest states so that you just can add

Love addRules, embedRules adds on to the current this.$solutions object.

To repeat this visually, let's employ a glimpse at the syntax highlighter for Lua pages, which mixes all of these ideas:

var HtmlHighlightRules = require("./html_highlight_rules").HtmlHighlightRules;
var LuaHighlightRules = require("./lua_highlight_rules").LuaHighlightRules;

var LuaPageHighlightRules = feature() {
    this.$solutions = new HtmlHighlightRules().getRules();

    for (var i in this.$solutions) {
            token: "keyword",
            regex: "<\%\=?",
            subsequent: "lua-birth up"
        }, {
            token: "keyword",
            regex: "<\?lua\=?",
            subsequent: "lua-birth up"
    this.embedRules(LuaHighlightRules, "lua-", [
            token: "keyword",
            regex: "\%>",
            next: "start"
            token: "keyword",
            regex: "\?>",
            next: "start"

Here, this.$solutions starts off as a location of HTML highlighting solutions. To this location, we add two new checks for <%= and . We also delegate that if one of these rules are matched, we should move onto the lua-start state. Next, embedRules takes the already existing set of LuaHighlightRules and applies the lua- prefix to each state there. Finally, it adds two new checks for %> and ?>, permitting the articulate machine to come to birth up.

Code Folding

Adding new folding solutions to your mode is usually a little tricky. First, insert the following traces of code into your mode definition:

var MyFoldMode = require("./folding/newrules").FoldMode;

var MyMode = feature() {


    this.foldingRules = new MyFoldMode();

You might per chance well be defining your code folding solutions into the lib/ace/mode/folding folder. Here is a template that you just might per chance well per chance per chance also use to birth up:

account for(feature(require, exports, module) {
"use strict";

var oop = require("../../lib/oop");
var Vary = require("../../differ").Vary;
var BaseFoldMode = require("./fold_mode").FoldMode;

var FoldMode = exports.FoldMode = feature() {};
oop.inherits(FoldMode, BaseFoldMode);

(feature() {

    // traditional expressions that title starting up and stopping components

    this.getFoldWidgetRange = feature(session, foldStyle, row) {
        var line = session.getLine(row);

        // test every line, and return a ramification of segments to give scheme



Correct delight in with TextMode for syntax highlighting, BaseFoldMode contains the effect to birth for code folding logic. foldingStartMarker defines your opening folding level, whereas foldingStopMarker defines the stopping level. As an instance, for a C-vogue folding plot, these values might per chance well per chance also glimpse delight in this:

this.foldingStartMarker = /({|[)[^}]]*$|^s*(/*)/;
this.foldingStopMarker = /^[^[{]*(}|])|^[s*]*(*/)/;

These traditional expressions title varied symbols--{, [, //--to pay attention to. getFoldWidgetRange matches on these regular expressions, and when found, returns the range of relevant folding points. For more information on the Range object, see the Ace API documentation.

Again, for a C-style folding mechanism, a range to return for the starting fold might look like this:

var line = session.getLine(row);
var match = line.match(this.foldingStartMarker);
if (match) {
    var i = match.index;

    if (match[1])
        return this.openingBracketBlock(session, match[1], row, i);

    var differ = session.getCommentFoldRange(row, i + match[0].dimension);
    differ.quit.column -= 2;
    return differ;

Shall we embrace we stumble across the code block hello_world() {. Our differ object here turns into:

  startRow: 0,
  endRow: 0,
  startColumn: 0,
  endColumn: 13

Testing Your Highlighter

The accurate methodology to test your tokenizer is to witness it live, correct? To attain that, you will desire to change the live Ace demo to preview your adjustments. You might per chance well also gain this file in the foundation Ace directory with the title kitchen-sink.html.

  1. add an entry to supportedModes in ace/ext/modelist.js
  2. add a pattern file to demo/kitchen-sink/doctors/ with same title as the mode file

As soon as you location this up, you might per chance well per chance per chance also soundless be in a location to glimpse a live demonstration of your new highlighter.

Adding Automatic Assessments

Adding automated tests for a highlighter is trivial so you are no longer required to attain it, but it in point of fact can abet at some stage in construction.

In lib/ace/mode/_test kind a file named


with some example code. (You might per chance well also skip this if the doc you might per chance well per chance per chance also hang added in demo/doctors each and every appears to be correct and covers varied edge circumstances in your language syntax).

Bustle node highlight_rules_test.js -gen to preserve present output of your tokenizer in tokens_.json

After this running highlight_rules_test.js optionalLanguageName will review output of your tokenizer with the best output you might per chance well per chance per chance also hang created.

Any recordsdata ending with the _test.js suffix are automatically speed by Ace's Travis CI server.

Welcome to the Ace API Reference!

On the left, yow will stumble on a listing of all of our currently documented classes.
These is no longer a entire location of classes, but quite, the "core" location. For more
knowledge on how to work with Ace, compare out the embedding knowledge.

Beneath is an ERD diagram describing some fundamentals about how the internals of Ace works:

Ace is broken-down in all places in the rep in all kinds of manufacturing purposes. Here is
factual a minute sampling:

Apart from our GitHub page, here's a listing of areas yow will stumble on abet for Ace:

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