A loyal lone hand for spades trump
|Beginning build||Europe, Canada, South Africa, Australia|
|Skills required||Reminiscence, Tactics|
|Card deplorable (perfect first)||one joker played because the tip of all beating any trump, J (of trump swimsuit) J (of identical coloration) A Okay Q 10 9, once in some time 8 7|
|Playing time||25 min.|
|Random chance||Medium|
|Clabber, 500, Forty-fives, Juckerspiel, Skat|
Euchre or eucre () is a trick-taking card sport recurrently played in Australia, Canada, Unique Zealand, Monumental Britain, and the United States. It is played with a deck of 24, 28, or 32 traditional taking part in playing cards. On the entire there are four gamers, two on each personnel, though there are adaptations for from two to nine gamers.
Euchre used to be to blame for introducing the joker into the favored deck of playing cards. The Joker Deck used to be launched to Americanized Euchre around 1860 with the joker acting as a high trump or ideal Bower (from the German phrase Bauer, “farmer”, denoting also the Jack – demand Bester Bube). Euchre is believed to be closely connected to the French sport Écarté, the seventeenth-century sport Lavatory lavatory, and the 19th-century sport Juckerspiel. It would perhaps well be once in some time known as Knock Euchre to present an clarification for apart it from Allege Euchre.
Origins and recognition
There are quite a lot of theories relating to the origins of Euchre. One idea is that Euchre used to be brought into the United States by the early German settlers of Pennsylvania and from that diagram used to be disseminated for the length of the nation. The 1864 version of The American Hoyle disputes its alleged German heritage, tracing the sport’s foundation to Pennsylvania within the 1820s. It goes on to surmise that a “smartly off German farmer’s daughter” had visited Philadelphia and carried home a stressed memory of Ecarté which then developed into Euchre.
One other hypothesis is that the sport derives from an eighteenth-century Alsatian card sport named Juckerspiel, though the earliest reference to Jucker is in 1848 and there are no detailed descriptions of its guidelines.
Euchre can had been launched to The US by immigrants from Cornwall nevertheless most prominetly from Devon in southwest England where it stays a vastly standard sport. Euchre used to be launched into Devon by French prisoners of The Napoleonic Wars, imprisoned in Dartmoor Penitentiary between 1805 and 1816. American prisoners were also later housed there from the Anglo-American Battle of 1812. Ombre is an ancestral salvage of Euchre.
The game used to be conception about the national card sport of the United States within the slack 19th century nevertheless has declined in popularity, though it retains a right following in some regions, such because the Midwest.
The game retains its popularity in Canada as smartly, critically in Ontario, and is recurrently considered as a social sport, with community tournaments held in bars or community centres. Fixed with Parlett it would perhaps well be described as Canada’s national card sport.
Euchre is a four-player trump sport, whereby the gamers are paired to salvage two partnerships. Identical outdated Euchre uses a deck of 25 taking part in playing cards consisting of one Joker, A, Okay, Q, J, 10, and 9 of every of the four matches. A 52-card deck will even be feeble, omitting the playing cards from 2 to 8, or a Pinochle deck would perhaps well be divided in half of to salvage two Euchre decks. Incessantly, a 32-card Piquet or Skat deck is feeble, which comprises the 8s and 7s.
Every player is dealt 5 playing cards (seven if the employ of the 32-card deck) in clockwise interpret in two rounds. A “minimize” is once in some time provided by the provider to the player to the factual. In some adaptations, the minimize ought to be requested.
The final four playing cards (or 5 if the employ of the Joker) are known as the “kitty” and are positioned face down in front of the provider. The tip card of the kitty is grew to change into face up, and bidding begins. The provider asks each player in turn within the occasion that they would in point of fact just like the swimsuit of the tip card to be trump, which they contemporary by pronouncing both “lift it up” or “pass”. If the chance comes around to the provider, the provider can both lift the cardboard up or flip it over. If the provider acquires the tip card (both by being ordered to lift it up or selecting to lift it up), the tip card turns into section of the provider’s hand, the provider then discarding a card to the kitty, face down. If no person orders up the tip card and the provider also chooses no longer to lift it up, each player is then given the chance, in turn, to call a varied swimsuit as trump. If no trump is selected, it is a “misdeal”, and the deal is handed clockwise. If the provider’s partner orders his partner (the provider) to lift up they must fall their hand and his partner goes alone – with the realization they would well web 4 aspects.
When a swimsuit is named trump, the jack within the swimsuit of the identical coloration turns true into a member of this trump swimsuit. Any card of that (expanded) swimsuit outranks any card of a non-trump swimsuit. The very best-rating card in Euchre is the jack of the trump swimsuit and is named the “factual bower” or “factual”; the different jack of the identical coloration is named the “left bower” or “left”. The playing cards are ranked, in descending interpret, J (of trump swimsuit), J (identical coloration as trump swimsuit), A, Okay, Q, 10, and 9 of the trump swimsuit. The final playing cards deplorable within the favored interpret (the off-coloration Jacks are no longer particular) and the playing cards of those matches ranked, in descending interpret, A, Okay, Q, J, 10, and 9.
Buy a hand is dealt and that spades are named as trump. In this occasion, the trump playing cards are as follows, from perfect-rating to lowest:
- Joker (high card), J♠ (factual bower), J♣ (left bower), A♠, Okay♠, Q♠, 10♠, 9♠
The J♣ turns true into a spade for the length of the taking part in of this hand. This expands the spades swimsuit to the seven playing cards named above and reduces the swimsuit of clubs by one card (its jack being loaned to the trump swimsuit). As soon as the hand is completed, the J♣ ceases to be a spade and turns true into a club yet again except spades are yet again named as trump for the length of the taking part in of a subsequent hand.
Overview, purpose, and scoring
When naming a swimsuit, a player asserts that their partnership intends to take hold of the bulk of tricks of the hand. A single point is scored when the expose succeeds, and two aspects are scored if the personnel that declared trump takes all 5 tricks (known as a “march“). A failure of the calling partnership to take hold of three tricks is named being “euchred”, and that partnership is penalized by giving the opposing partnership two aspects.
A caller with exceptionally fair appropriate playing cards can “crawl alone”, whereby case they watch to take hold of the march without a partner. The partner of a caller in a lone hand would not play, and if the caller achieves the march, the righteous personnel scores 4 aspects. If completely three or four of the tricks are taken whereas going alone, then completely one point is scored. If euchred whereas taking part in alone, the opposing personnel aloof completely receives 2 aspects.
The necessary rule to endure in thoughts when taking part in Euchre is that one is rarely any longer regularly ever required to play the trump swimsuit (except that’s the one who is led), nevertheless one is required to follow swimsuit if seemingly. (e.g., if diamonds are led, a player with diamonds is required to play a diamond.)
Calling round (naming trump)
As soon as the playing cards are dealt and the tip card on the kitty is grew to change into over, the upturned card’s swimsuit is provided as trump to the gamers in clockwise interpret foundation with the player to the left of the provider (known as the “eldest”). Crew participants are regularly sorrowful or explicitly forbidden to discuss their preferred possibility(s) of trump, lined by the guidelines forbidding table talk. If a player desires the proposed swimsuit to be named trump, they interpret up the cardboard and the provider adds that card to their hand. It is in any appreciate times extra safe to the provider’s personnel to lift out trump in this model, because the provider basically positive aspects one trump card. The provider must then also discard a card face down from their hand, in interpret to reach their hand to having a filled with 5 playing cards. This discard is a foremost tactical decision, because the provider can potentially form a “void” or “short swimsuit” in their hand, where they lack any playing cards of a particular swimsuit. That can allow them to play a trump card in build of being forced to follow that voided swimsuit when it’s led (demand the later part on righteous tricks, and “two-pleasant” within the Terminology part). If the player as an different opts to pass, the option proceeds to the player to the left except both a player orders the cardboard up or all gamers hold handed.
If all gamers pass, the tip card is grew to change into face down and that swimsuit would perhaps well now no longer be chosen as trump. Trump possibility proceeds clockwise foundation with the player to the left of the provider, where the player would perhaps well name a swimsuit varied from that of the earlier up-card as trump, or they would well pass. No card is ordered up in this round. If all gamers pass yet again, it’s declared a misdeal. The deal passes to the player on the earlier provider’s left, who reshuffles and deals a contemporary hand. (A variation known as “Stick the Dealer”, regularly referred to as “striking” or “screwing” the provider, is once in some time played, where the provider is forced to call trump in this field.)
The personnel that selects trump is known because the “makers” for the the leisure of the hand, and the opposing personnel is known because the “defenders”. The makers must lift a minimal of three of the 5 tricks within the hand in interpret to preserve away from being euchred.
The player to the provider’s left begins play by leading any card of any swimsuit, along side trumps. Play continues in clockwise interpret; each player must follow swimsuit within the occasion that they’ve a card of the swimsuit led. The left bower is believed about a member of the trump swimsuit and no longer a member of its native swimsuit.
The player who played the perfect card of the swimsuit led wins the trick, except a trump is played; then the perfect trump card wins the trick. Avid gamers who play neither the swimsuit led nor trump can’t grab the trick. The player who won the trick collects the played playing cards from the table, turns the playing cards face down, after which ends within the following trick.
Despite all the pieces 5 rounds had been played, the hand is scored. The player to the left of the earlier provider then deals the following hand, and the deal strikes clockwise across the table except one partnership scores 10 aspects and wins the sport.
If the player bidding and making trump has an exceptionally fair appropriate hand, that player has the option of taking part in without their partner and partner’s playing cards. If that player then wins all 5 tricks, the personnel scores four aspects.
“Going alone” is initiated on the time the bidder orders the upturned card on the kitty to the provider or names a swimsuit. The bidder signifies their desire to play alone by pronouncing so after bidding. The bidder must form this call sooner than play begins. All over a loner or lone hand, the bidder’s partner discards their playing cards, and would not participate in play of the hand. In some regional variants (demand beneath), if the provider’s partner “calls them up”/”orders it up” (on the grew to change into up card), they’re obliged to crawl alone for that hand.
Defending alone: If a player chooses to form trump, the defending personnel must purchase to crawl alone. If all 5 tricks are taken by the defending personnel, the defending personnel will receive 4 aspects. In most Canadian adaptations here is rarely any longer allowed and completely the personnel making trump would perhaps well purchase to “crawl alone”.
The percentages of success of a lone hand rely on the lay of the playing cards and the slothful playing cards held by the bidder’s partner. 9 playing cards out of twenty-four enact no longer participate in play, making the hand less predictable than it would be in every other case. A hand consisting of the tip 5 playing cards of the trump swimsuit is mathematically unbeatable from any build; here is once in some time known as a “lay-down”, as a player with this sort of hand would perhaps well in most cases merely lay all 5 playing cards on the table without prolong.
|Bidding partnership (makers) wins 3 or 4 tricks||1|
|Bidding partnership (makers) wins 5 tricks (march)||2|
|Bidder goes alone and wins 3 or 4 tricks||1|
|Bidder goes alone and wins 5 tricks (march)||4|
|Defenders grab 3 or extra tricks (makers are euchred)||2|
|Defender goes alone and wins 3 or extra tricks (regional variant)||4|
The first personnel to receive 10 aspects (or 5, 7, 11, or 15 aspects in some adaptations of the sport) wins the sport. Some gamers purchase to play “grab by two” where there isn’t this sort of thing as a winner except a personnel has a minimal of 10 aspects and 2 aspects extra than the different personnel. Winning a sport 10–0 is known as “skunking” within the US.
Ratings will even be saved by the employ of two in every other case unused playing cards as markers, with each personnel in most cases the employ of playing cards of the identical coloration.
One contrivance involves the employ of the 4 and 6 playing cards. Scoring begins the employ of one card face up, lined by the different card face down. Upon righteous aspects, the tip card is moved to contemporary the precise possibility of swimsuit symbols on the underside card. Despite all the pieces aspects are revealed on the lower card, the tip card is flipped over, adding pips on each playing cards to contemporary the receive.
A variation of scorekeeping in Western Unique York and Ontario involves both side the employ of the 2 and 3 of one swimsuit. Scoring begins with counting the symbols on the playing cards, for aspects 1 to 4; at 5, the playing cards are grew to change into over and crossed. Crossing the playing cards indicates 5 aspects. Aspects 6 to 9 are counted equally by counting the chance of swimsuit symbols showing and adding them to the 5, when the playing cards are crossed.
In Canada and Michigan, it’s general for every personnel to make employ of two 5s of the identical coloration to preserve receive, with one personnel purple and the different sunless. The 5s are in most cases known as “counting playing cards” in this field.
Making a wager
Making a wager takes build after the trump is sure, nevertheless sooner than the principle card is led to the principle trick. Making a wager can start with an ante or forced wager. The defenders can both study on the expose and expose nothing, thereby likely losing their ante; call the expose; or – within the occasion that they feel assured that they’ll Euchre – elevate the expose. As soon as a raffle has been settled by a call on the expose, the hand performs out, with the winners of the wager adding that wager to their pot. After a sport has been won, the righteous personnel then splits the pot between the 2 winners and the sport can discontinuance. Some variants will even be played over just a few games.
Making a wager in Euchre will even be performed on a per-trick basis or a per point basis. At the discontinuance of the sport, the losing personnel owes the righteous personnel the variation in aspects in maintaining with the monetary designate diagram per point.
Speaking with one’s partner to handbook their play, known as table talk or contaminated-boarding, is believed about dishonest. This could consist of code phrases, secret gestures, or different forms of cooperative play. Reckoning on home guidelines, table talk would perhaps well discontinuance up in replaying of a hand or awarding of a indicate the personnel calling out the infraction.
Some adaptations allow (or a minimal of settle for the inevitability of) the minor non-verbal conversation in that a player would perhaps well hesitate sooner than passing on trump possibility to signal to their partner that their playing cards are capable to the provided trump, nevertheless are no longer sufficient to be sure a grab. Conversely, the player would perhaps well pass snappy or blatantly to contemporary their playing cards are very sorrowful for the readily on the market trump possibility (perhaps indicating their partner must aloof crawl alone within the occasion that they lift out that trump). This adds an extra component of approach in that gamers would perhaps well bluff a transient pass or hesitation to trick their opponents into calling or declining the provided trump; on the different hand, this may occasionally naturally backfire by confusing the player’s hold teammate. Reckoning on the taking part in neighborhood, couples or fair appropriate chums would perhaps well be purposely assign onto opposing groups, due to the the perceived advantage they’ll hold finding out one one other as teammates.
If a player would not follow swimsuit when they’re ready to (in most cases by taking part in a trump card as an different), it’s conception about a renege (or revoke), and the opposing personnel is awarded two aspects if it’s caught in later tricks of the identical hand or two aspects will even be deducted from the offending personnel. While such mis-performs are in most cases unintended—as an instance, where a player misreads about a of their playing cards, most recurrently by misinterpreting the left bower as being of its native swimsuit—they’re aloof callable by opponents as reneging. In some variants, reneging when a player or their opponent goes alone would perhaps well lead to a penalty of four aspects, equally acceptable to the maker of trump and the opposing personnel, in interpret to equalize the doable values of a hand. On the entire, reneging on motive is believed about dishonest and is strongly sorrowful among communities that lift into consideration dishonest or lying to be unethical. Avid gamers caught yet again and yet again reneging on motive are in most cases ostracized from future card taking part in occasions.
Reveals three males—Jack the sunless packer, “Harry my buddy” the digger, and Ah Sin the Chinese fossicker—taking part in euchre. Ah Sin won.
Euchre is a sport with a trim possibility of variant variations. They consist of variations for 2 to nine gamers, as smartly as changes in playing cards feeble, bidding, play, and scoring.
No trump: After the principle round (once the kitty’s high card has been grew to change into down), “no trump” would perhaps well be known as. The first card played for every trick establishes that trick’s swimsuit,[clarification needed] with traditional deck interpret (ace high) taking precedence.
Stick the provider or screw the provider: The provider must call trump on the discontinuance of the second round and is unable to uncover a misdeal. This variation is in most cases feeble to preserve the sport moving snappy.
Going beneath or bottoms or farmer’s hand: A player with a hand with a minimal of three 9 or 10 playing cards can alternate three of these playing cards with the three unknown playing cards within the kitty. This ought to be performed sooner than trump has been selected.
One other variant of the “farmer’s hand” guidelines states that if a player receives all 9s and 10s, they would well demand a redeal. The provider would perhaps well no longer exercise this selection (on legend of they lift up the cardboard from the kitty).
Level on partner: When a partner steals their very hold partner’s deal successfully, to boot to maintaining the deal, the personnel is also awarded one point.
In some adaptations, a player would perhaps well no longer call trump with completely a jack and must hold one other card of the identical swimsuit within the occasion that they decide to call it. Incessantly this completely applies to the provider, and if a player is caught doing this, it’s in most cases handled as a renege.
Robson guidelines: When a personnel wins all 5 tricks (generally or by going alone), they would well purchase to lower the opposing personnel’s receive (by two or four, respectively) in build of adding to their very hold receive. Furthermore, if the provider turns up a jack on the kitty, they would well elect to crawl alone without seeing the the leisure of their hand. If all tricks are won by process of this “blind loner” hand, 5 aspects are awarded in build of the favored four; nevertheless a failure to take hold of all tricks earns the defenders one point. This rule diagram used to be named for four-time Northern Michigan regional occasion runner-up champion James Robson.
No ace, no face, no trump: If a player is dealt a hand which once trump is named contains no aces, face playing cards, or the swimsuit which is trump they would well contemporary their hand sooner than playing cards had been played, stating “no ace, no face, no trump”; and all gamers must throw their playing cards in and the hand is re-dealt.
Three-handed Euchre: A variant for three gamers, three-handed Euchre is played love 24-card Euchre, with the following changes:
- Avid gamers play alone, in desire to in groups.
- Every player performs to ten aspects, and keeps their very hold receive (the employ of 4s and 6s as markers)
- Seven playing cards are dealt to each player, leaving three within the kitty (high card is grew to change into up).
- The one who makes trump is the “maker”. Each other gamers are “defenders”, nevertheless compete with each other for tricks.
- If the maker takes four tricks, they receive one point. If the maker takes six tricks, they receive two aspects. Taking all seven tricks offers the maker four aspects.
- If the maker would not lift four tricks, they’re euchred (diagram). The defender who took the most tricks will then receive two aspects. If each defenders took an equal possibility of tricks, they each receive one point.
Ace no face: If somebody is dealt a hand that contains any possibility of aces nevertheless has no face playing cards, they would well lay their playing cards on the table and call “ace no face”. Right here is believed about a misdeal, and all the playing cards are gathered and re-dealt.
Queens Mulligan: If a player has 3 Queens, they’ll call “queens mulligan” when or no longer it’s their turn to expose, and all the playing cards are gathered and a contemporary player turns into the provider.
Many of these adaptations are explicit to a particular diagram. In Australia and Unique Zealand, taking part in to eleven in desire to ten aspects is general. In southwestern England, Cornwall, and Guernsey, adaptations with a joker as perfect trump are played. In Ontario, parts of Unique Zealand, and within the British and Australian variations of the sport, after the provider turns up the tip card on the kitty if the principle player to the left passes and the provider’s partner would decide to present an clarification for up the provider, the provider’s partner must play alone.
Euchre terminology varies greatly from diagram to diagram, and is highly colloquial. Some examples consist of:
- Bump or getting “euchred” or “diagram”: Occurs when the opposing personnel wins extra tricks than the personnel who known as the swimsuit.
- Farmer’s Hand, Downhearted Man’s Hand, Backside Hand, Grandma’s Hand: Sure stale arms (in most cases those containing no Aces or face playing cards (Kings, Queens, or Jacks), nevertheless completely 9s and 10s), are designated as “farmer’s arms” or “bottoms”. After inspecting the hand dealt, a player would perhaps well call out “farmer’s hand” and is then allowed to point the playing cards in demand and alternate three of them for the three unexposed playing cards within the kitty (regularly referred to as “going beneath” or “beneath the table”).
- Ace No Face: A lot like “farmers hand”. In Ace No Face the player must hold one Ace and all 9s and 10s in their hand. The player then calls “ace no face” and exchanges three of their playing cards for the underside three (ought to be known as sooner than the principle card of the foundation trick has been led).
- Euchre Bustle: Title for a Euchre occasion (feeble in northern Midwest of United States).
- Lay-Down: A hand that can robotically grab all 5 tricks if played within the safe interpret: as an instance, a Dutchman (each Bowers and the Ace of trumps) plus the King and Queen of that swimsuit, every other two trump playing cards, or one extra trump card and an off-trump Ace (when that player has the lead). It is miles regularly referred to as a Loner, or Lone Wolf, on legend of a player with this sort of hand will usually opt to crawl alone. It would perhaps well furthermore consult with any diagram of playing cards that are in most cases played when the player is aware of they’ll grab all the tricks they lay for. This, on the different hand, would perhaps well completely be performed for the length of the identical swimsuit without giving up a puny advantage to the different gamers.
- Screw the Dealer, or Stick the Dealer: An no longer compulsory rule that states that if trump is rarely any longer known as it ought to be known as by the provider, who is closing to behave. Basically feeble as a technique to recede up the sport, as it eliminates throw-in arms.
- Trump the Accomplice: Refers to a field where the closing player performs the cardboard that wins a trick that their partner would hold in every other case won. It in any appreciate times refers to a field where the partner has an Ace that follows swimsuit and the player performs a trump card, nevertheless taking part within the next trump or non-trump than the partner’s qualifies.
- Loner Vary: When a personnel reaches 6 aspects they’re known as in “Loner Vary” on legend of they want 4 or less aspects (a righteous going-alone is value 4 aspects) to prevail in 10 aspects and grab a sport. Alternatively, it’ll also be feeble to portray being 4 aspects away from the opposing personnel. To illustrate, when it’s 4 to 8, the losing personnel is in “Loner Vary” beneath the righteous personnel.
- Throwing in: On legend of there isn’t this sort of thing as a reward for righteous four of the 5 tricks it’s in most cases former for the leading player of the offensive personnel to throw the the leisure of their playing cards into the centre once three tricks had been assured nevertheless 5 tricks is awfully no longer going. Right here is on legend of one trick has already been won by the opposing personnel or they’re sure that every individual the tricks can’t be won. (e.g. a factual bower used to be ordered up nevertheless has no longer been played once three tricks had been won) The playing cards are thrown face up to point the opposing personnel the inevitability of their righteous three tricks or the impossibility of righteous all.
- Deuchre: Coined by esteemed Euchre champion, Danny Maloney, the deuchre is when one personnel calls trump and proceeds to take hold of all the tricks.
- ^ Oxford Dictionary of Card Games, David Parlett, p. 104
- ^ The All the pieces Card Games Book: A Total Info to Over 50 Games, p. 128, Nikki Katz, ISBN 1-59337-130-6
- ^ Notes and Queries: A Medium of Inter-conversation for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, And heaps others. 1. Bell and Daldy. 31 Would possibly perhaps well 1862. p. 427.
- ^ Parlett’s Historical Card Games: Euchre
- ^ Oxford Dictionary of Card Games, David Parlett, pg. 124 ISBN 0-19-869173-4
- ^ Schossow, Breann (February 21, 2014). “Wisconsin’s Ardour For Euchre”. Wisconsin Lifestyles. Wisconsin Public Radio. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f Tim Ander. How to Play Euchre: A Beginner’s Info to Discovering out the Euchre Card Game Instructions, Scoring & Methods to Rob at Playing Euchre. 46 pag. (2018). ISBN 1976880068, ISBN 978-1976880063
- ^ Euchre Explained. Nick Buzzy. 52 pag. ASIN: B004KAB9QU
- ^ Safire’s political dictionary, p. 283, William Safire – Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-534334-2
American politicians had been both proud of themselves or extreme of others for “going it alone” since about 1850, when card gamers began the employ of this phrase to designate a player’s decision to soak up their tricks without the assist of their partner. It would perhaps well completely be known as by the person declaring trump, no longer their partner.
- ^ Hoyle’s guidelines of games : descriptions of indoor games of skill and chance, with recommendation on skillful play : in maintaining with the foundations laid down by Edmond Hoyle, 1672–1769. Hoyle, Edmond, 1672–1769., Morehead, Albert H. (Albert Hodges), 1909–1966., Mott-Smith, Geoffrey, 1902–1960., Morehead, Philip D. (Third rev. & up up to now ed.). Unique York: Plume. 2001. ISBN 9781101085387. OCLC 460720133.CS1 maint: others (hyperlink)
- ^ An introduction into the best contrivance we play Euchre in our league. Penryn, Falmouth & District Euchre League 2014. “This player will pass or interpret up the provider, within the case of the principle player passing the second player (dealers Accomplice) would perhaps well enact love gleaming, nevertheless within the occasion that they interpret the provider they’ll crawl alone.”
Extra finding out
- Matthews, Thomas (1844). The Whist Player’s Hand Book, Isaac M. Moss, Philadelphia.
- Parlett, David (1991). A Historical previous of Card Games, OUP, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-282905-X
- Phillips, Hubert & Westall, B. C. (1939) The Total Book of Card Games. London: Witherby (Under the name Five hundred, pp. 172–175)
- “Trumps” (1864). The American Hoyle, or, Gents’s hand-ebook of games, 4th edn. Dick & Fitzgerald, Unique York.