“Tag’s theorem” redirects here. For the theorem in fashioned relativity, ogle Richard H. Tag.

Within the thought of evolution and natural desire, the **Tag equation** (additionally typically known as **Tag’s equation** or **Tag’s theorem**) describes how a trait or allele adjustments in frequency over time. The equation uses a covariance between a trait and health, to give a mathematical description of evolution and natural desire. It gives a technique to care for the implications that gene transmission and natural desire maintain on the frequency of alleles internal every unusual technology of a inhabitants. The Tag equation became once derived by George R. Tag, working in London to re-rep W.D. Hamilton‘s work on family desire. Examples of the Tag equation had been constructed for plenty of evolutionary cases. The Tag equation additionally has purposes in economics.^{[1]}

It is essential to reward that the Tag equation is no longer a physical or biological legislation. It is no longer a concise or fashioned expression of experimentally validated outcomes. It is miles moderately a purely mathematical relationship between utterly different statistical descriptors of inhabitants dynamics. It is miles mathematically reputable, and therefore no longer self-discipline to experimental verification. In straightforward terms, it is a mathematical restatement of the expression “survival of the fittest” which is at all times self-evident, given the mathematical definitions of “survival” and “fittest”.

## Observation[edit]

The Tag equation exhibits that a swap within the moderate quantity of a trait in a inhabitants from one technology to the next () is made up our minds by the covariance between the amounts of the trait for subpopulation and the fitnesses of the subpopulations, alongside with the anticipated swap within the quantity of the trait price as a result of health, particularly :

Here is the moderate health over the inhabitants, and and signify the inhabitants point out and covariance respectively. ‘Nicely being’ is the ratio of the moderate form of offspring for all of the inhabitants per the form of adult participants within the inhabitants, and is that same ratio absolute most practical for subpopulation .

The covariance term captures the implications of natural desire; if the covariance between health () and the trait price () is particular then the trait price is anticipated to construct bigger on moderate over inhabitants . If the covariance is detrimental then the trait is deleterious and is anticipated to diminish in frequency.

The 2nd term, , represents elements rather than negate desire that can perchance well affect trait evolution. This term can encompass genetic waft, mutation bias, or meiotic drive. Additionally, this term can encompass the implications of multi-level desire or community desire.

Tag (1972) referred to this because the “atmosphere swap” term, and denoted each and every terms the utilization of partial spinoff notation (∂_{NS} and ∂_{EC}). This knowing of atmosphere comprises interspecies and ecological outcomes. Tag describes this as follows:

Fisher adopted the a piece uncommon level of assume of concerning dominance and epistasis as being atmosphere outcomes. As an illustration, he writes (1941): ‘A swap within the proportion of any pair of genes itself constitutes a swap within the atmosphere in which participants of the species glean themselves.’ Hence he regarded the natural desire carry out on M as being restricted to the additive or linear outcomes of adjustments in gene frequencies, whereas every thing else – dominance, epistasis, inhabitants rigidity, climate, and interactions with other species – he opinion a few subject of the atmosphere.

— G.R. Tag (1972),

Fisher’s main theorem made clear^{[2]}

## Proof[edit]

Convey there is a inhabitants of participants over which the quantity of a explicit characteristic varies. Those participants may be grouped by the quantity of the characteristic that every shows. There may be as few as appropriate one community of all participants (consisting of a single shared price of the characteristic) and as many as teams of 1 particular individual every (consisting of particular values of the characteristic). Index every community with so that the form of people within the neighborhood is and the designate of the characteristic shared amongst all people of the community is . Now derive that having of the characteristic is expounded with having a health the set aside the product represents the form of offspring within the next technology. Denote any such offspring from community by so that . Let be the moderate quantity of the characteristic displayed by the offspring from community . Denote the quantity of swap in characteristic in community by outlined by

Now attach shut to be the moderate characteristic price in this inhabitants and to be the moderate characteristic price within the next technology. Outline the swap in moderate characteristic by . That is,

Present that here is *no longer* the moderate price of (as it is that it’s likely you’ll perchance well well bring to mind that ). Additionally attach shut to be the moderate health of this inhabitants. The Tag equation states:

the set aside the functions and are respectively outlined in Equations (1) and (2) below and are equal to the weak definitions of sample point out and covariance; alternatively, they’re no longer meant to be statistical estimates of characteristics of a inhabitants. In explicit, the Tag equation is a deterministic distinction equation that fashions the trajectory of the staunch point out price of a characteristic alongside the drag with the creep of an staunch inhabitants of people. Assuming that the purpose out health is no longer zero, it is at all times indispensable to jot down it as

Within the explicit case that characteristic (i.e., health itself is the characteristic of curiosity), then Tag’s equation reformulates Fisher’s main theorem of natural desire.

To remark the Tag equation, the next definitions are wanted. If is the form of occurrences of a pair of right numbers and , then:

- The point out of the values is:

The notation will additionally be mature when

helpful.

Convey there is a inhabitants of organisms all of which maintain a genetic characteristic described by some right number. As an illustration, high values of the number signify an elevated visible acuity over another organism with a decrease price of the characteristic. Teams may be outlined within the inhabitants which may be characterized by having the same price of the characteristic. Let subscript identify the community with characteristic and let be the form of organisms in that community. The total form of organisms is then the set aside:

The accepted price of the characteristic is printed as:

Now disclose that the inhabitants reproduces and the form of people in community within the next technology is represented by . The so-called health of community is printed to be the ratio of the form of its participants within the next technology to the form of its participants within the outdated technology. That is,

Thus, saying that a community has “higher health” is equal to saying that its people plot extra offspring per particular individual within the next technology. Within the same contrivance, represents the entire form of people at some stage in all teams, that shall be expressed as:

Furthermore, the moderate health of the inhabitants may be shown to be the development fee of the inhabitants as a total, as in:

Even supposing the entire inhabitants may honest develop, the proportion of people from a clear community may honest swap. In explicit, if one community has a higher health than one other community, then the higher-health community will maintain a higher build bigger in illustration within the next technology than the decrease-health community. The accepted health represents how the inhabitants grows, and participants teams with below-moderate health will are inclined to claim no in percentage, whereas those teams with above-moderate health will are inclined to construct bigger in percentage.

Along with the proportion of people in every community altering over time, the trait values internal a single community may honest vary a exiguous bit from one technology to one other (e.g., as a result of mutation). These two pressures together will trigger the moderate price of the characteristic over all of the inhabitants to swap over time. Assuming the designate of has changed by exactly an a similar quantity for all people of the fashioned community, within the unusual technology of the community, the moderate price of the characteristic is:

the set aside are the (per chance unusual) values of the characteristic in community . Equation (2) exhibits that:

Name the swap in characteristic price from guardian to child populations so that . As considered in Equation (1), the anticipated price operator is linear, so

Combining Equations (7) and (8) ends in

Now, let’s compute the main term within the equality above. From Equation (1), we know that:

Substituting the definition of health, (Equation (4)), we derive:

Next, substituting the definitions of moderate health () from Equation (5), and moderate child characteristics () from Equation (6) gives the Tag equation:

### Derivation of the continuous-time Tag equation[edit]

Remember a residing of teams with which may be characterized by a explicit trait, denoted by . The number of people belonging to community experiences exponential development:

the set aside corresponds to the health of the community. We are attempting to rep an equation describing the time-evolution of the anticipated price of the trait:

In accordance with the chain rule, we are capable of also honest rep an accepted differential equation:

A further utility of the chain rule for gives us:

Summing up the parts gives us that:

which is additionally typically known because the replicator equation. Now, reward that:

Subsequently, placing all of those parts together, we arrive at the continuous-time Tag equation:

## Easy Tag equation[edit]

When the characteristic values enact no longer swap from the guardian to the newborn technology, the 2nd term within the Tag equation becomes zero ensuing in a simplified version of the Tag equation:

that shall be restated as:

the set aside is the fractional health: .

This straightforward Tag equation may be proven the utilization of the definition in Equation (2) above. It makes this main assertion about evolution: “If a clear inheritable characteristic is correlated with an build bigger in fractional health, the moderate price of that characteristic within the newborn inhabitants shall be elevated over that within the guardian inhabitants.”

### Capabilities[edit]

The Tag equation can represent any system that adjustments over time, but is most typically applied in evolutionary biology. The evolution of leer gives an example of straightforward directional desire. The evolution of sickle cell anemia exhibits how a heterozygote advantage can affect trait evolution. The Tag equation can additionally be applied to inhabitants context dependent traits such because the evolution of intercourse ratios. Additionally, the Tag equation is versatile ample to mannequin 2nd expose traits such because the evolution of mutability. The Tag equation additionally gives an extension to Founder carry out which exhibits swap in inhabitants traits in utterly different settlements

### Dynamical sufficiency and the easy Tag equation[edit]

Most regularly the genetic mannequin being mature encodes ample recordsdata into the parameters mature by the Tag equation to enable the calculation of the parameters for all subsequent generations. This property is mostly known as dynamical sufficiency. For simplicity, the next seems to be at dynamical sufficiency for the easy Tag equation, but is additionally reputable for the chubby Tag equation.

Referring to the definition in Equation (2), the easy Tag equation for the persona may be written:

For the 2nd technology:

The straightforward Tag equation for absolute most practical gives us the designate of for the main technology, but does no longer give us the designate of and , which may be wanted to calculate for the 2nd technology. The variables and can each and every be opinion to be characteristics of the main technology, so the Tag equation may be mature to calculate them as smartly:

The 5 0-technology variables , , , , and ought to be known outdated to persevering with to calculate the three first technology variables , , and , which may be wanted to calculate for the 2nd technology. It is going to even be considered that in fashioned the Tag equation can’t be mature to propagate forward in time until there is a technique of calculating the higher moments and from the decrease moments in a technique that is self reliant of the technology. Dynamical sufficiency formula that such equations may be reward within the genetic mannequin, allowing the Tag equation to be mature on my own as a propagator of the dynamics of the mannequin forward in time.

## Rotund Tag equation[edit]

The straightforward Tag equation became once in accordance to the belief that the characters enact no longer swap over one technology. Whether it is believed that they enact swap, with being the designate of the persona within the newborn inhabitants, then the chubby Tag equation ought to be mature. A swap in persona can attain about in plenty of ways. The following two examples illustrate two such potentialities, every of which introduces unusual perception into the Tag equation.

### Genotype health[edit]

We level of curiosity on the postulate of the health of the genotype. The index indicates the genotype and the form of kind genotypes within the newborn inhabitants is:

which gives health:

Since the actual individual mutability does no longer swap, the moderate mutabilities shall be:

with these definitions, the easy Tag equation now applies.

### Lineage health[edit]

On this case we are attempting to ogle at the postulate that health is measured by the form of formative years an organism has, no topic their genotype. Present that we maintain two methods of grouping, by lineage, and by genotype. It is miles that this complication that will introduce the need for the chubby Tag equation. The form of formative years an -kind organism has is:

which gives health:

We maintain characters within the newborn inhabitants which may be the moderate persona of the -th guardian.

with world characters:

with these definitions, the chubby Tag equation now applies.

## Criticism[edit]

The exhaust of the swap in moderate characteristic () per technology as a measure of evolutionary growth is no longer constantly acceptable. There may well per chance be cases the set aside the moderate stays unchanged (and the covariance between health and characteristic is zero) whereas evolution is alternatively in growth.

A extreme discussion of the utilization of the Tag equation may be reward in van Veelen (2005)^{[3]}, van Veelen *et al*. (2012),^{[4]} and van Veelen (2020)^{[5]}. Frank (2012) discusses the criticism in van Veelen *et al*. (2012).^{[6]}

## Cultural references[edit]

Tag’s equation aspects within the set aside and title of the 2008 thriller film *WΔZ*.

The Tag equation additionally aspects in posters within the computer sport *BioShock 2*, in which a individual of a “Mind Enhance” tonic is considered deriving the Tag equation whereas concurrently discovering out a e-book. The game is made up our minds within the 1950s, considerably outdated to Tag’s work.

## Witness additionally[edit]

## References[edit]

## Further discovering out[edit]

- Frank, S.A. (1995). “George Tag’s contributions to Evolutionary Genetics” (PDF).
*Journal of Theoretical Biology*.**175**(3): 373–388. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.136.7803. doi: 10.1006/jtbi.1995.0148. PMID 7475081. - Frank, S.A. (1997). “The Tag equation, Fisher’s main theorem, family desire, and causal evaluation” (PDF).
*Evolution*.**51**(6): 1712–1729. doi: 10.2307/2410995. JSTOR 2410995. PMID 28565119. - Gardner, A. (2008). “The Tag equation” (PDF).
*Curr. Biol*.**18**(5): R198–R202. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.01.005. PMID 18334191. S2CID 1169263. Archived from the fashioned (PDF) on 2008-12-16. - Grafen, A. (2000). “Trends of the Tag equation and natural desire below uncertainty” (PDF).
*Court cases of the Royal Society B*.**267**(1449): 1223–1227. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1131. PMC 1690660. PMID 10902688. - Harman, Oren (2010).
*The Tag of Altruism: George Tag and the detect for the origins of kindness*. Bodley Head. ISBN 978-1-84792-062-1. - Langdon, W.B. (1998). “8.1 Evolution of GP populations: Tag’s desire and covariance theorem”.
*Genetic Programming and Records Constructions*. pp. 167–208. - Tag, G.R. (1970). “Resolution and covariance” (PDF).
*Nature*.**227**(5257): 520–521. Bibcode: 1970Natur.227..520P. doi: 10.1038/227520a0. PMID 5428476. S2CID 4264723. - Tag, G.R. (1972). “Extension of covariance desire arithmetic”.
*Annals of Human Genetics*.**35**(4): 485–490. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.1957.tb01874.x. PMID 5073694. S2CID 37828617. - van Veelen, Matthijs; García, Julián; Sabelis, Maurice W. & Egas, Martijn (2010). “Demand a return to rigour in fashions”. Correspondence.
*Nature*.**467**(7316): 661. Bibcode: 2010Natur.467..661V. doi: 10.1038/467661d. PMID 20930826. - Day, T. (2006). “Insights from Tag’s equation into evolutionary epidemiology”.
*Insights from Tag’s equation into evolutionnary epidemiology*.*DIMACS Series in Discrete Arithmetic and Theoretical Laptop Science*.**71**. pp. 23–43. doi: 10.1090/dimacs/071/02. ISBN 9780821837535. - “How to quit the Tag equation: An on-line self-help tutorial”.
- “The Superior Expose”.
*Radiolab*. Season 9. Episode 1. New York. 14 December 2011. WNYC. - Markovitch; Witkowski; Virgo (2018). “Chemical heredity as community desire at the molecular level”. arXiv: 1802.08024 [q-bio.PE].