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NKSP Scripting Language for LinuxSampler Audio Engine

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This doc intends to come up with with a compact introduction and overview to
the NKSP proper-time instrument script language, so that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to initiate up writing
your maintain instrument scripts in brief time. It concentrates on describing
the script language. Even as you quite want to be taught to alter and
set scripts to your sounds, then please consult with the gigedit e-book for
script for attaching NKSP scripts with
SFZ structure sounds.

At a Ask


NKSP stands for “is Not KSP“, which denotes its distinction
to an existing proprietary language called KSP.
NKSP is a script language particularly designed to write proper-time valid
tool extensions to LinuxSampler’s sampler engines that will presumably also be bundled
in my idea with sounds by sound designers themselves.

As an more than a few of defining a fully new script language, NKSP is leaned on
that talked about properiatary script language. The largest advantage is that
sound designers and musicians can leverage the superior amount of existing KSP
scripts that are already on hand for various functions on the Web,
as an more than a few of being forced to write all scripts from scratch in a fully
varied language.

That also skill alternatively that there are some variations between these two
languages. Some extensions were added to the NKSP core language to
create it rather extra convenient and much less error inclined to write scripts, and
varied new functions had to be added in consequence of the colossal disagreement of the
sampler engines and their underlying sampler structure. Efforts were
made even supposing to create NKSP as a lot relish minded to KSP as that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to evaluate.
The NKSP documentation will emphasize particular person variations in
the 2 languages and characteristic implementations wherever they’ll also merely happen, to
come up with instantaneous hints where you have gotten to protect concerning
compatibility disorders when writing scripts that ought to be spawned on each and every
platforms.

Please existing that the new heart of attention of NKSP is the sound controlling facet
of sounds. At this point there’s no such thing as a encourage for the graphical user
interface characteristic characteristic of KSP in NKSP.

Match Handlers

NKSP is an tournament-pushed language. That implies you are writing so called
tournament handlers which outline what the sampler shall enact on particular person
events that happen, while the utilization of the sound the script became as soon as bundled with.
An tournament handler usually appears to be to be like relish this:

  • on tournament-name
  • statements
  • stop on

There are currently six events on hand:

Match Form Description
on existing This tournament handler is done when a brand new existing became as soon as brought on, i.e. when hitting a key on a MIDI keyboard.
on birth This tournament handler is done when a reward became as soon as launched, i.e. when releasing a key on a MIDI keyboard.
on controller This tournament handler is done when a MIDI save watch over trade tournament took place. For example when turning the modulation wheel at a MIDI keyboard.
on rpn This tournament handler is done when a MIDI RPN tournament took place.
on nrpn This tournament handler is done when a MIDI NRPN tournament took place.
on init Finished most productive as soon as, as very first tournament handler, appropriate after the script had been loaded. This code block is continuously feeble to initialize variables to your script with some preliminary, priceless recordsdata.

You is more most likely to be free to reach to a choice for which of them of these tournament forms you are going to
write an tournament handler for. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to write an tournament handler for most productive one
tournament kind or write tournament handlers for all of these tournament forms. Additionally
dependent on the respective tournament kind, there are obvious stuff you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to
enact and things which you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to’t enact. Nonetheless extra on that later.

Unusual Events

As a first instance, the following tiny script will print a message to your
terminal every time you trigger a brand new existing with your MIDI keyboard.

  • on existing
  • message(“A new existing became as soon as brought on!”)
  • stop on

Maybe you are also enthusiastic to leer which existing you brought on precisely.
The sampler provides you a so called

constructed-in variable

called $EVENT_NOTE which reflects the present quantity
(as designate between 0 and 127) of the present that has fine been brought on. Additionally
the constructed-in variable $EVENT_VELOCITY provides you the
stoop designate (also between 0 and 127) of the present tournament.

  • on existing
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as brought on with stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • stop on

The & personality concatenates textual swear strings with each and every varied.
In this case it is some distance also routinely changing the present quantity into a
textual swear string.


The message() characteristic shouldn’t be acceptable for being feeble with your remaining
manufacturing sounds, because it would possibly possibly end result in audio dropouts.
You ought to most productive exercise the message() characteristic to raise shut a discover at out things, and to characteristic
and debug considerations with your scripts.

Commence Events

As counter section to the existing tournament handler, there is also the
birth tournament handler, which is done when a reward became as soon as
launched. This tournament handler could presumably also be feeble in the same trend:

  • on birth
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as launched with birth stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • stop on

Please existing that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to hardly procure MIDI keyboards which encourage birth
stoop. So with most keyboards this designate will most likely be 127.

Controller Events

Now let’s extend the first script to not most productive set existing-on and existing-off
events, but additionally to set a message every time
you exercise a MIDI controller (i.e. modulation wheel, protect pedal, and heaps others.).

  • on existing
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as brought on with stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • stop on
  • on birth
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as launched with birth stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • stop on
  • on controller
  • message(“MIDI Controller “ & $CC_NUM ” changed its designate to “ & %CC[$CC_NUM])
  • stop on

It appears to be to be like very the same to the present tournament handlers. $CC_NUM
reflects the MIDI controller sequence of the MIDI controller that had been
changed and %CC is a so called array variable, which not most productive
contains a single quantity designate, but as an more than a few it contains quite loads of values at
the the same time. The constructed-in %CC array variable contains the new
controller values of all 127 MIDI controllers. So %CC[1] for
instance would come up with the new controller designate of the modulation
wheel, and in consequence of this truth %CC[$CC_NUM] reflects the new controller
designate of the controller that fine had been changed.

There could be some particular facet you ought to be conscious about: in distinction to the MIDI frequent,
monophonic aftertouch (a.k.a. channel pressure) and pitch bend wheel are
handled by NKSP as in the event that they were fashioned MIDI controllers. So a designate trade
of a form of two triggers a fashioned controller tournament handler
to be done. To invent the new aftertouch designate you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to exercise
%CC[$VCC_MONO_AT], and to procure the new pitch bend wheel
designate exercise %CC[$VCC_PITCH_BEND].

RPN / NRPN Events

There are also dedicated tournament handlers for
MIDI RPN and
NRPN
events:

  • on rpn
  • message(“RPN handle msb=” & msb($RPN_ADDRESS) & “,lsb=” & lsb($RPN_ADDRESS) &
  • “-> designate msb=” & msb($RPN_VALUE) & “,lsb=” & lsb($RPN_VALUE))
  • if ($RPN_ADDRESS = 2)
  • message(“Usual Vulgar Tuning RPN obtained”)
  • stop if
  • stop on
  • on nrpn
  • message(“NRPN handle msb=” & msb($RPN_ADDRESS) & “,lsb=” & lsb($RPN_ADDRESS) &
  • “-> designate msb=” & msb($RPN_VALUE) & “,lsb=” & lsb($RPN_VALUE))
  • stop on

Since MIDI RPN and NRPN events are the truth is MIDI controller events,
you could presumably perchance presumably as wisely handle these with the old
controller tournament handler. Nonetheless since RPN and NRPN messages
are usually not fine one MIDI message, but quite constantly handled by a characteristic of
particular person MIDI messages, and since the
precise characteristic and sequence of exact MIDI instructions sent varies between
distributors and even amongst particular person of their merchandise, it highly is fine to
exercise these two certainly ideal tournament handlers for these as an more than a few, for the reason that
sampler will already reduction you from that burden to accommodate all these
low-degree MIDI tournament processing disorders and all their wrinkles involved
when handling RPNs and NRPNs.


Despite the indisputable truth that there are two separate, dedicated tournament handlers for RPN and NRPN events,
they each and every portion the the same constructed-in variable names as you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to leer in the
instance above.

So by finding out $RPN_ADDRESS you procure the RPN / NRPN parameter
quantity that had been changed, and $RPN_VALUE represents the
new designate of that RPN / NRPN parameter. Unusual that these two constructed-in
variables are a 14-bit illustration of the parameter quantity and new
designate. So their that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to evaluate designate vary is 0 .. 16383. Even as you
quite want to exercise their (in MIDI world) extra frequent separated two 7 bit
values as an more than a few, then you definately’ll be in a neighborhood to without disadvantage enact that by wrapping them into either
msb() or lsb() calls relish also demonstrated above.

Script Load Match

Because the leisure certainly one of the most six tournament forms on hand with NKSP, the following
is an instance of an init tournament handler.

  • on init
  • message(“This script has been loaded and is ready now!”)
  • stop on

It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance think, that right here’s potentially a extremely exotic tournament. Because in
truth, this “tournament” is most productive done as soon as for your script: precisely when
the script became as soon as loaded by the sampler. This shouldn’t be an unimportant tournament
handler even supposing. Because it is feeble to prepare your script for various
functions. We can procure extra about that later.

Let’s face it: tool code is regularly laborious to be taught, especially whenever you happen to
are usually not a skilled tool developer who offers with such types of
things each and on each day basis. To create it extra easy for you to relish, what you
had in mind whenever you happen to wrote a obvious script three years previously, and also if
some varied developer could presumably perchance have to continue working to your scripts one
day, you ought to space as many feedback into your scripts as that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to evaluate. A
observation in NKSP is every little thing that is nested into a gap and shutting
pair of curly braces.

{ It's some distance a observation. }

That it is probably going you’ll’t most productive exercise this to drag away some human readable explanations right here
and there, you could presumably perchance presumably also merely moreover exercise such curly braces to love a flash disable parts
of your scripts for a second, i.e. when debugging obvious things.

  • on init
  • { The next will most likely be induced to the terminal when the sampler loaded this script. }
  • message(“My script loaded.”)
  • { This code block is commented out, so these two messages is potentially not displayed }
  • {
    message(“One other textual swear”)
    message(“And one more one”)
    }
  • stop on

Variables

In dispute so as to write extra complex and extra priceless scripts, you
also have to contain shut into consideration some recordsdata somewhere for being in a neighborhood to exercise that
recordsdata at a later point. This would presumably also be performed by the utilization of

variables
.
We already stumbled on some constructed-in variables, that are already
defined by the sampler for you. To retailer your maintain recordsdata you have gotten to advise
your maintain user variables, which has the following invent:

dispute $variable-name := preliminary-designate

The left hand aspect’s variable-name is an arbitrary name
you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to selected for your variable. That name could presumably perchance encompass English
letters A to Z (lower and upper case), digits (0 to 9),
and the underscore personality “_“.
Variable names ought to be irregular. So that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to neither dispute quite loads of variables
with the the same name, nor can you exercise a name for your variable that is
already been reserved by constructed-in variables.
The becoming hand aspect’s preliminary-designate is merely the first
designate the variable ought to retailer appropriate after it became as soon as created. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to also
omit that.

dispute $variable-name

In that case the sampler will routinely assign 0 for you
as the variable’s preliminary designate. This kind lets as an instance depend the
total amount of notes brought on.

  • on init
  • dispute $numberOfNotes := 0
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • $numberOfNotes := $numberOfNotes + 1
  • message(“This is the “ & $numberOfNotes & “th existing brought on to this point.”)
  • stop on

Within the init tournament handler we manufacture our maintain variable
$numberOfNotes and assign 0 to it as its
preliminary designate. Delight in talked about earlier than, that preliminary project shouldn’t be obligatory.
Within the existing tournament handler we then boost the
$numberOfNotes variable by one, every time a brand new existing became as soon as
brought on and then print a message to the terminal with the new total
amount of notes which were brought on to this point.


NKSP lets you advise variables in all tournament handlers, alternatively if
you relish to have to save compatibility with KSP, then you definately ought to most productive
dispute variables in init tournament handlers.

Variable Kinds

There are currently 5 varied variable forms, which you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to without disadvantage
acknowledge upon their first personality.

Variable Build Files Form Description
$variable-name Integer Scalar Retail outlets one single integer quantity designate.
%variable-name Integer Array Retail outlets a obvious amount of integer quantity values.
~variable-name Proper Number Scalar Retail outlets one single proper (floating point) quantity designate.
?variable-name Proper Number Array Retail outlets a obvious amount of proper (floating point) quantity values.
@variable-name String Retail outlets one textual swear string.

So the first personality fine earlier than the exact variable name, constantly
denotes the tips form of the variable. Additionally existing that every body variable forms
portion the the same variable name space. That implies you could presumably perchance presumably not dispute a
variable with a name that has already been feeble to advise a variable of
one more variable kind.

Array Variables

We already feeble the first two variable forms. Alternatively we now have not considered but
dispute such array variables. This is the frequent declaration invent
for setting up your maintain array variables.

  • on init
  • dispute %variable-name[array-size] := ( list-of-values )
  • stop on

So as an instance you wished to manufacture an array variable with the first 12
prime numbers, then it could possibly most likely presumably perchance depend upon relish this.

  • on init
  • dispute %primes[12] := ( 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37 )
  • stop on

Delight in with integer variables, assigning some preliminary values with
list-of-values shouldn’t be obligatory. The array
declaration invent without preliminary designate project appears to be to be like relish this.

  • on init
  • dispute %variable-name[array-size]
  • stop on

Even as you omit that preliminary project, then all numbers of that array will
routinely be initialized with 0 each and every. With array
variables alternatively, it is constantly famous to give
array-dimension with an array
variable declaration, so the sampler can manufacture that array with the
requested amount of values when the script is loaded. In distinction to many
varied programming languages, altering that quantity of values of an array
variable shouldn’t be that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to evaluate after the variable had been declared. That’s due
to the indisputable truth that this language is dedicated to proper-time applications, and
altering the scale of an array variable at runtime would distress proper-time
steadiness of the sampler and thus could presumably perchance end result in audio dropouts. So NKSP
would not allow you to enact that.

String Variables

You’d also merely moreover retailer textual swear with variables. These are called textual swear string
variables
, or brief: string variables. Let’s skip the frequent declaration
invent of string variables and allow us to alter a old instance to fine exercise
such roughly variable.

  • on init
  • dispute $numberOfNotes
  • dispute @firstText := “This is the “
  • dispute @secondText
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • $numberOfNotes := $numberOfNotes + 1
  • @secondText := “th existing brought on to this point.”
  • message(@firstText & $numberOfNotes & @secondText)
  • stop on

It behaves precisely relish the prior instance and shall fine come up with a
first belief dispute and exercise string variables.


Delight in with the message() characteristic, you mustn’t exercise string variables
with your remaining manufacturing sounds, because it would possibly possibly end result in audio dropouts.
You ought to most productive exercise string variables to raise shut a discover at out things, and to characteristic
and debug considerations with your scripts.

Variable Scope

By default, all variables you dispute with NKSP are

worldwide variables
. That implies each and every tournament handler can procure entry to the tips of this form of worldwide
variable. Moreover, each and every occasion of an tournament handler accesses the the same
recordsdata when it is referencing that variable. And the latter truth is continuously a
advise regularly, which we are in a position to outline next.

Let’s buy you wished to write an instrument script that shall resemble
a easy prolong keep. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance enact that by writing a reward tournament handler
that routinely triggers quite loads of new notes for each and every existing being
brought on on a MIDI keyboard. The next instance demonstrates how that
is more most likely to be performed.

  • on init
  • { The amount of notes to play }
  • dispute const $delayNotes := 4
  • { Tempo with which the new notes will apply the orignal existing }
  • dispute const $bpm := 90
  • { Convert BPM to microseconds (length between the notes) }
  • dispute const $delayMicroSeconds := 60 1000000 / $bpm
  • { Correct a working variable for being feeble with the while loop below }
  • dispute $i
  • { For every and every successive existing we trigger, we are in a position to lower the price rather}
  • dispute $stoop
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • { First initialize the variable $i with 4 every time we enter this tournament
    handler, in consequence of every time we done this handler, the variable will most likely be 0 }
  • $i := $delayNotes
  • { Loop which is able to be done 4 events in a row }
  • while ($i)
  • { Calculate the price for the subsequent existing being brought on }
  • $stoop := 127 $i / ($delayNotes + 1)
  • { Slump this script for a brief second … }
  • wait($delayMicroSeconds)
  • { … and after that brief rupture, trigger a brand new existing. }
  • play_note($EVENT_NOTE, $stoop)
  • { Decrement loop counter $i by one }
  • $i := $i1
  • stop while
  • stop on

In this instance we feeble a brand new keyword const. This extra
variable qualifier defines that we keep not intend to trade this variable
after declaration. So whenever you happen to know beforehand, that a obvious variable ought to
dwell with a obvious designate, then you definately could presumably perchance exercise the const
qualifier to avoid losing away from that you i.e. trade the price accidently whenever you happen to
regulate the script somewhere in future.

Now whenever you happen to trigger one single existing to your keyboard with that script,
you could presumably perchance hear the extra notes being brought on. And also whenever you happen to
hit one more existing after a while, every little thing appears to be supreme. Alternatively if
you initiate up taking part in swiftly successive notes, you could presumably perchance look something goes
depraved. The amount of notes being caused by the script is now incorrect
and also the quantity of the particular person notes caused by the script is depraved.
What’s occurring?

To realize the advise in the leisure instance, let’s take be conscious of what is
happening when executing that script precisely: Every time you play a reward
to your keyboard, a brand new occasion of the existing tournament handler
will most likely be spawned and done by the sampler. In all our examples to this point
our scripts were certainly easy, that in practice most productive one tournament handler occasion
became as soon as done at a time. This is varied in this case even supposing. Because
by calling the wait() characteristic, the respective handler
execution occasion is paused for a while and in total each and every handler
occasion will most likely be done for bigger than 2 seconds in this advise
instance. As a , when
you play quite loads of, successive notes to your keyboard in brief time, you
can have quite loads of cases of the existing tournament handler running
simultaniously. And that is where the advise starts. Because by default,
as stated, all variables are worldwide variables. So the tournament handler cases
that are the truth is running in parallel, are all finding out and modifying the the same
recordsdata. Thus the particular person tournament handler cases will regulate the
$i and $stoop variables of every and every varied, causing
an undesired misbehavior.


NKSP’s constructed-in characteristic play_note() lets you pass
between one and 4 characteristic arguments. For the characteristic arguments you
keep not present to a play_note() call, NKSP will routinely
exercise default values. Even as you relish to have your script to be relish minded with KSP,
then you definately ought to constantly pass four arguments to that characteristic even supposing.

Polyphonic Variables

As a logical of the previously described recordsdata concurrency
advise, it could possibly most likely presumably perchance perchance be natty to have each and every tournament handler occasion exercise
its maintain variable occasion, so that the particular person handler cases cease
interfering with each and every varied. For that reason the so called

polyphonic variable

qualifier exists with NKSP. Declaring this form of variable is a associated to
declaring a fashioned variable, fine that you add the keyword polyphonic.

dispute polyphonic $variable-name

So as to repair the worm in our old instance, we merely create the variables
$i and $stoop polyphonic variables.

  • on init
  • { The amount of notes to play }
  • dispute const $delayNotes := 4
  • { Tempo with which the new notes will apply the orignal existing }
  • dispute const $bpm := 90
  • { Convert BPM to microseconds (length between the notes) }
  • dispute const $delayMicroSeconds := 60 1000000 / $bpm
  • { Correct a working variable for being feeble with the while loop below }
  • dispute polyphonic $i { < --- NOW POLYPHONIC !!! }
  • { For every and every successive existing we trigger, we are in a position to lower the price rather}
  • dispute polyphonic $stoop { < --- NOW POLYPHONIC !!! }
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • { First initialize the variable $i with 4 every time we enter this tournament
    handler, in consequence of every time we done this handler, the variable will most likely be 0 }
  • $i := $delayNotes
  • { Loop which is able to be done 4 events in a row }
  • while ($i)
  • { Calculate the price for the subsequent existing being brought on }
  • $stoop := 127 $i / ($delayNotes + 1)
  • { Slump this script for a brief second … }
  • wait($delayMicroSeconds)
  • { … and after that brief rupture, trigger a brand new existing. }
  • play_note($EVENT_NOTE, $stoop)
  • { Decrement loop counter $i by one }
  • $i := $i1
  • stop while
  • stop on

And that is it! The script works now as intended. Now you could presumably perchance presumably wonder, why
are variables not polyphonic by default? Will not be always that extra frequent and
would not that be extra safer than the utilization of worldwide variables by default? The cause being that
a polyphonic variable consumes a lot extra memory than a fashioned (worldwide) variable.
That’s in consequence of for each and every polyphonic variable, the sampler has to allocate
in reach (when the script is loaded) as many cases of that
polyphonic variable as there are maximum events
allowed with the sampler. In explain that is loads! Pondering that this day’s
computers have heaps of RAM this is more most likely to be a theoretical facet, but in the
stop: this default scope of variables became as soon as already relish this with KSP
so we’re also doing it relish this with NKSP for compatibility reasons.

Please existing that the polyphonic qualifier most productive exists for integer
variables and proper quantity variables (scalars).
So that you could presumably perchance presumably not dispute polyphonic string variables, nor can you
dispute polyphonic array variables. Delight in in the old explanation,
right here’s in consequence of the indisputable truth that it would bask in a superior amount of memory
for such variables. And with string variables and array variables, the
required amount of memory could presumably perchance be a lot better than with easy integer or
proper quantity variables.

As summary, the following are guiding belief rules describing whenever you happen to ought to
exercise the polyphonic qualifier for a obvious variable. You ought to advise
a advise variable polyphonic if one (or even each and every) of the following two
conditions be conscious to that variable.

  1. Even as you call the wait() characteristic within your tournament
    handlers and the respective variable is modified and skim earlier than
    and after no lower than certainly one of the most particular person wait() calls.
  2. Even as you have gotten loops that can bustle for a extremely very long time, while having access to
    the respective variable in between. That’s in consequence of in case your script is
    running consecutively for too long, the sampler will routinely stoop your
    script for a while to avoid losing away out of your script turning into an actual-time steadiness
    hazard for the sampler. Your script will then routinely be resumed
    after a brief second by the sampler, so successfully right here’s the same to
    something relish an “automated” wait() characteristic call by
    the sampler.

In all varied cases you ought to quite exercise fashioned (worldwide) variables as an more than a few.
Nonetheless save in mind that you could presumably perchance presumably have to re-assign a obvious designate for
some worldwide variables whenever you happen to enter the respective tournament handler, fine
relish we did with $i := $delayNotes appropriate from the initiate up
all through discussion of the old instance script.

There could be one more particular facet concerning the variable scope of polyphonic
variables: existing handlers and birth handlers of
the the same script portion the the same polyphonic variable scope, this skill that you
could presumably perchance merely pass recordsdata from a advise existing’s existing handler to its
birth handler by the utilization of the the same polyphonic variable name.

Preserve an eye fixed on Structures

A pc is bigger than a calculator that provides numbers and stores them
somewhere. One amongst the largest strength of a pc, which makes it
such highly efficient, is the flexibility to enact varied things looking out on varied
conditions. For example your computer could presumably perchance comely up your laborious drive
while you are usually not sitting in front of it, and it could possibly most likely presumably perchance suddenly cease
doing so whenever you happen to need all its sources to slash your latest video which
you fine shot.

In dispute to enact that for you, a pc program lets you outline
conditions and an inventory of directions the computer shall
manufacture for you beneath these particular person conditions. All these
tool mechanisms are called Preserve an eye fixed on Structures.

if Branches

Basically the most main save watch over structure are if branches, which has
the following general invent.

  • if (situation)
  • statements
  • stop if

The specified situation is evaluated every time script
execution reaches this save watch over block. The placement can as an instance be
the price of a variable, some arithmetic expression, a characteristic call or
a mix of them. In all cases the sampler expects the
situation expression to guage to some numeric
(or boolean) designate. If the evaluated quantity is strictly 0 then
the location is interpreted to be fraudulent and thus the list of
statements shouldn’t be done. If the evaluated designate is any
varied designate than 0 then the location is interpreted to be
moral and accordingly the list of statements will most likely be
done.

Alternatively you could presumably perchance presumably also merely moreover specify an inventory of directions which would possibly be
done when the location is fraudulent.

  • if (situation)
  • statements-when-moral
  • else
  • statements-when-fraudulent
  • stop if

In this case the first list of statements is done when the
situation evaluated to moral, otherwise the second
list of statements is done as an more than a few.

All over but again, let’s procure relief to the instance of counting brought on notes.
You have seen that it did not output appropriate English for the
first three notes. Let’s appropriate this now.

  • on init
  • dispute $numberOfNotes
  • dispute @postfix
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • $numberOfNotes := $numberOfNotes + 1
  • if ($numberOfNotes == 1)
  • @postfix := “st”
  • else
  • if ($numberOfNotes == 2)
  • @postfix := “nd”
  • else
  • if ($numberOfNotes == 3)
  • @postfix := “rd”
  • else
  • @postfix := “th”
  • stop if
  • stop if
  • stop if
  • message(“This is the “ & $numberOfNotes & @postfix & ” existing brought on to this point.”)
  • stop on

We are the truth is checking the price of $numberOfNotes earlier than we
print out a message. If $numberOfNotes equals one, then we
assign the string "st" to the variable @postfix,
if $numberOfNotes equals 2 as an more than a few we assign the string
"nd" as an more than a few, if it equals 3 as an more than a few we assign
"rd", in all varied cases we assign the string
"th". And eventually we assemble the textual swear message to be
printed out to the terminal on line 23.

Select Case Branches

The old instance now outputs the numbers in appropriate English. Nonetheless the
script code appears to be to be like rather bloated, appropriate? That’s why there is a brief hand
invent.

  • capture expression
  • case integer-1
  • statements-1
  • case integer-2
  • statements-2
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • stop capture

The supplied expression is first evaluated to an integer
designate. Then this designate is when in contrast with the integer values of the nested
case lines. So it first compares the evaluated designate of
expression with integer-1, then it
compares it with integer-2, etc. The predominant integer
quantity that matches with the evaluated designate of expression,
will most likely be interpreted as being the new kindly situation. So if
expression equals integer-1,
then statements-1 will most likely be done, otherwise if
expression equals integer-2,
then statements-2 will most likely be done, etc.

The exercise of a capture-case create, our old instance would depend upon relish follows.

  • on init
  • dispute $numberOfNotes
  • dispute @postfix
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • $numberOfNotes := $numberOfNotes + 1
  • @postfix := “th”
  • capture $numberOfNotes
  • case 1
  • @postfix := “st”
  • case 2
  • @postfix := “nd”
  • case 3
  • @postfix := “rd”
  • stop capture
  • message(“This is the “ & $numberOfNotes & @postfix & ” existing brought on to this point.”)
  • stop on


Even as you relish, you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to also set parentheses all during the capture expression,
relish capture (expression). Some developers acquainted with
varied programming languages could presumably perchance score this trend. Alternatively whenever you happen to relish to have
to avoid losing compatibility with KSP, you mustn’t exercise parentheses for
capture expressions.

The amount
of case conditions you add to such capture-case blocks is totally up
to you. Correct contain shut into consideration that the case conditions will most likely be in contrast one at a time,
from prime to down. The latter could presumably also be main whenever you happen to outline a case line
that defines a designate vary. So as an instance the following instance will
not enact what became as soon as potentially intended.

  • on init
  • dispute $numberOfNotes
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • $numberOfNotes := $numberOfNotes + 1
  • capture $numberOfNotes
  • case 1 to 99
  • message(“No longer as a lot as 100 notes brought on to this point”)
  • exit
  • case 1
  • message(“First existing became as soon as brought on!”) { Would possibly possibly perchance not ever be printed ! }
  • exit
  • case 2
  • message(“Second existing became as soon as brought on!”) { Would possibly possibly perchance not ever be printed ! }
  • exit
  • case 3
  • message(“Third existing became as soon as brought on!”) { Would possibly possibly perchance not ever be printed ! }
  • exit
  • stop capture
  • message(“Wow, already the “ & $numberOfNotes & “th existing brought on.”)
  • stop on

You potentially procure the root what this script “ought to” enact. For the 1st existing
it ought to print "First existing became as soon as brought on!", for the 2nd
existing it ought to print "Second existing became as soon as brought on!", for the 3rd
existing it ought to print "Third existing became as soon as brought on!", for the 4th
as a lot as 99th existing it ought to print "No longer as a lot as 100 notes brought on to this point",
and ranging from the 100th existing and all following ones, it ought to print
the categorical existing quantity in step with line 23. Alternatively, it would not!

To appropriate this advise, you have gotten to switch the first case block to the stop,
relish follows.

  • on init
  • dispute $numberOfNotes
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • $numberOfNotes := $numberOfNotes + 1
  • capture $numberOfNotes
  • case 1
  • message(“First existing became as soon as brought on!”)
  • exit
  • case 2
  • message(“Second existing became as soon as brought on!”)
  • exit
  • case 3
  • message(“Third existing became as soon as brought on!”)
  • exit
  • case 1 to 99
  • message(“No longer as a lot as 100 notes brought on to this point”)
  • exit
  • stop capture
  • message(“Wow, already the “ & $numberOfNotes & “th existing brought on.”)
  • stop on

Otherwise you could presumably perchance presumably obviously repair the questioned case vary from case 1 to 99
to case 4 to 99. Both solutions will enact.

We also feeble the constructed-in characteristic exit() in the
old instance. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to exercise it to cease execution at that time of your
script. Within the old instance it prevents quite loads of messages to be
printed to the terminal.


The exit() characteristic most productive stops execution of the contemporary
tournament handler occasion! It does not cease execution of quite loads of
cases of the the same tournament handler, nor does it cease execution of quite loads of
handlers of quite loads of tournament forms, and especially it does not cease or
prevent extra or future execution of your complete script! In varied phrases,
you ought to quite leer this characteristic as a return assertion, whenever you are
acquainted with varied programming languages already.

while Loops

One other main save watch over create of program drag alongside with the movement are loops.
It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to exercise so called

while loops

with NKSP.

  • while (situation)
  • statements
  • stop while

A while loop is entered if the supplied situation
expression evaluates to moral and ought to then continue to enact
the given list of statements appropriate down to the stop of the statements
list. The situation is re-evaluated every time execution
reached the stop of the statements list and in step with
that latest evaluated situation designate at that time, it
will or will not repeat executing the statements but again. If the location
turned fraudulent as an more than a few, this would presumably perchance merely drag away the loop and continue executing
statements that apply after the while loop block.

The next instance will print the the same message three events in a row to the
terminal, appropriate after the script had been loaded by the sampler.

  • on init
  • dispute $i := 3
  • while ($i)
  • message(“Print this three events.”)
  • $i := $i1
  • stop while
  • stop on

When the while loop is reached for the first time in this instance, the
situation designate is 3. And as we learned earlier than, all integer
values that are usually not 0 are interpreted as being a moral situation.
Accordingly the while loop is entered, the message is printed to the
terminal and the variable $i is diminished by one. We reached
the stop of the loop’s statements list, so it is now re-evaluating the
situation, which is now the price 2 and thus the loop
directions are done but again. That is repeated till the loop became as soon as
done for the third time. The variable $i is now
0, so the loop situation turned eventually to fraudulent and the
loop is thus left at that time and the textual swear message became as soon as printed
three events in total.

User Capabilities

We already stumbled on varied constructed-in functions, which you could presumably perchance merely call
by your scripts to manufacture obvious tasks or behavior which is already
supplied for you by the sampler. NKSP also lets you write your
maintain functions, which then you could presumably perchance presumably also merely call from varied areas of your
script.

When engaged on bigger scripts, you
could presumably perchance merely look that you without disadvantage procure to the point where you could presumably perchance presumably also merely have to
duplicate portions of your script code, since there are obvious things
that you could presumably perchance presumably also merely have to enact time and but again in varied parts of your script.
Instrument developers continuously strive to avoid losing away from such code duplications to
save the general amount of code as cramped as that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to evaluate, since the
overall amount of code would bloat like a flash and would
create the tool very laborious to avoid losing. One formulation for you to avoid losing away from such
script code duplications with NKSP is to write so called User Capabilities.

Let’s buy you wished to manufacture a easy stuttering keep. You’d also merely enact so
relish in the following instance.

  • on existing
  • while (1)
  • wait(200000)
  • if (not (event_status($EVENT_ID) .and. $EVENT_STATUS_NOTE_QUEUE))
  • exit()
  • stop if
  • change_vol($EVENT_ID, –20000) { Nick quantity by 20 dB. }
  • wait(200000)
  • if (not (event_status($EVENT_ID) .and. $EVENT_STATUS_NOTE_QUEUE))
  • exit()
  • stop if
  • change_vol($EVENT_ID, 0) { Lift quantity to 0 dB. }
  • stop while
  • stop on

This script will bustle an never-ending loop for each and every existing being brought on.
Every 200ms this would presumably perchance merely turn the quantity alternatingly down and
as a lot as manufacture the audible stuttering keep. After each and every wait()
call it calls event_status($EVENT_ID) to set up whether or not
this existing is quiet alive, and as quickly as the present died, this would presumably perchance merely cease
execution of the script occasion by calling exit(). The latter
is excessive in this instance, in consequence of otherwise the script execution cases would
continue to bustle in this never-ending loop forever, even after the respectives
notes are long gone. Which could presumably perchance perchance let your CPU utilization boost with each and every new existing
and would beneath no circumstances lower but again.
This behavior of the sampler shouldn’t be a worm, it is intended, since there could presumably perchance merely
also be cases where you relish to have to enact obvious things by script even after the
respective notes are ineffective and long gone. Alternatively as you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to leer, that script is
the utilization of the the same portions of script code twice. To avoid losing away from that, you could presumably perchance presumably also
write the the same script with a user characteristic relish this:

  • characteristic pauseMyScript
  • wait(200000)
  • if (not (event_status($EVENT_ID) .and. $EVENT_STATUS_NOTE_QUEUE))
  • exit()
  • stop if
  • stop characteristic
  • on existing
  • while (1)
  • call pauseMyScript
  • change_vol($EVENT_ID, –20000) { Nick quantity by 20 dB. }
  • call pauseMyScript
  • change_vol($EVENT_ID, 0) { Lift quantity relief to 0 dB. }
  • stop while
  • stop on

The script turned in this easy instance most productive a bit smaller, but it certainly also
turned more straightforward to be taught and behaves identically to the old resolution.
And in practice, with a extra complex script, you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to
lower the general amount of script code loads this formulation. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to utilize any
name for your maintain user functions, as long as the name shouldn’t be already
reserved by a constructed-in characteristic. Unusual that for calling a user characteristic,
you have gotten to constantly precede the exact user characteristic name with the
call keyword. Likewise you could presumably perchance presumably also merely alternatively not exercise the
call keyword for calling any constructed-in characteristic. In explain that
substantially differs calling constructed-in functions from calling user functions.

Synchronized Blocks

When we launched the polyphonic keyword
previously, we learned that a script could presumably perchance merely routinely be suspended by
the sampler at any time and then your script is thus sleeping for an
arbitrary while. The sampler have to enact such auto suspensions beneath obvious
scenarios in cases where an instrument script could presumably perchance merely change into a hazard for the
sampler’s overall proper-time steadiness. If the sampler would not enact so, then
instrument scripts could presumably perchance without disadvantage cause audio dropouts, or at worst, buggy
instrument scripts could presumably perchance even lock up your complete sampler in an never-ending
loop. So auto suspension is an famous characteristic of the sampler’s proper-time
instrument script engine.

Now the advise as a script author is that you don’t certainly know beforehand
why and when your script could presumably perchance procure auto suspended by the sampler. And when
you are engaged on extra complex, delicate scripts, you could presumably perchance look
that this can indeed be a big advise in obvious sections of your scripts.
Because in practice, a worldly script continuously has no lower than one obvious
consecutive fragment of statements which ought to be done in strict consecutive dispute
by the sampler, which can presumably perchance otherwise cause concurrency disorders and thus
misbehavior of your script if that ideal code portion became as soon as auto suspended
in between. A long-established instance of such concurrency ideal code sections are
statements that are finding out and conditionally modifying worldwide variables.
If your script will get auto suspended in this form of code portion, one more
script handler occasion could presumably perchance then interfere and trade these worldwide
variables in between.

To avoid losing away from that, you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to space this form of ideal code portion on the very foundation
of your tournament handler. For example take be conscious of you is more most likely to be writing a customised
glissando
script starting relish this:

  • on init
  • dispute $keysDown
  • dispute $firstNoteID
  • dispute $firstNoteNr
  • dispute $firstVelocity
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • { The concurrency ideal code portion for the “first active” existing. }
  • inc($keysDown)
  • if ($keysDown = 1 or event_status($firstNoteID) = $EVENT_STATUS_INACTIVE)
  • $firstNoteID = $EVENT_ID
  • $firstNoteNr = $EVENT_NOTE
  • $firstVelocity = $EVENT_VELOCITY
  • exit { return from tournament handler right here }
  • stop if
  • { The non-ideal code for all varied subsequent notes would drag right here. }
  • stop on
  • on birth
  • dec($keysDown)
  • stop on

Since the sooner statements are done in an tournament handler, the simpler
the likelihood that they are going to beneath no circumstances procure auto suspended. And with these couple of
lines in the latter instance you could presumably perchance presumably even be lucky that it couldn’t ever procure
suspended in that ideal code portion no lower than. Alternatively in terms of are living
concert events you don’t the truth is want to depend upon success, and in practice this form of
ideal code portion is more most likely to be bigger than this one.

That’s why we launched synchronized code blocks for the
NKSP language, which have the following invent:

  • synchronized
  • statements
  • stop synchronized

All statements which you save into this form of synchronized
code block are assured that they are going to beneath no circumstances procure auto suspended by
the sampler.


Such synchronized blocks are a language extension which
is most productive on hand with NKSP. KSP would not encourage synchronized blocks.

So as to create our old instance concurrency precise, we would
trade it relish this:

  • on init
  • dispute $keysDown
  • dispute $firstNoteID
  • dispute $firstNoteNr
  • dispute $firstVelocity
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • { The concurrency ideal code portion for the “first active” existing. }
  • synchronized
  • inc($keysDown)
  • if ($keysDown = 1 or event_status($firstNoteID) = $EVENT_STATUS_INACTIVE)
  • $firstNoteID = $EVENT_ID
  • $firstNoteNr = $EVENT_NOTE
  • $firstVelocity = $EVENT_VELOCITY
  • exit { return from tournament handler right here }
  • stop if
  • stop synchronized
  • { The non-ideal code for all varied subsequent notes would drag right here. }
  • stop on
  • on birth
  • dec($keysDown)
  • stop on

Even as you are already acquainted with some programming languages, then you definately
could presumably perchance already have considered such synchronized code block concepts
in languages relish e.g. Java. This approach certainly provides a easy formulation
to guard obvious sections of your script against concurrency disorders.


You have to exercise such synchronized code blocks most productive with big
care! If the amount of statements being done to your synchronized block
is too colossal, then you definately can procure audio dropouts. Even as you even exercise loops in
synchronized code blocks, then your complete sampler could presumably perchance even change into
unresponsive in case your script is buggy!

Operators

A programming language provides so called operators to manufacture
obvious types of transformations of recordsdata placed next to the operators.
These are the operators on hand with NKSP.

Arithmetic Operators

These are the most fundamental mathematical operators, which allow to add,
subtract, multiply and divide integer values with each and every varied.

  • on init
  • message(“4 + 3 is “ & 4 + 3) { Add }
  • message(“4 – 3 is “ & 43) { Subtract }
  • message(“4 3 is “ & 4 3) { Multiply }
  • message(“35 / 5 is “ & 35 / 5) { Divide }
  • message(“35 mod 5 is “ & 35 mod 5) { The leisure of Division (“modulo”) }
  • stop on

You’d also merely either exercise deliver integer literal numbers relish feeble in the upper
instance, or you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to exercise integer quantity variables or integer array variables.

Boolean Operators

To manufacture logical transformations of boolean recordsdata, you could presumably perchance presumably also merely exercise the
following logical operators:

  • on init
  • message(“1 and 1 is “ & 1 and 1) { logical “and” }
  • message(“1 and nil is “ & 1 and 0) { logical “and” }
  • message(“1 or 1 is “ & 1 or 1) { logical “or” }
  • message(“1 or 0 is “ & 1 or 0) { logical “or” }
  • message(“not 1 is “ & not 1) { logical “not” }
  • message(“not 0 is “ & not 0) { logical “not” }
  • stop on

Preserve existing of that with logical operators shown above,
all integer values varied than 0
are interpreted as boolean moral while an integer designate of
precisely 0 is interpreted as being boolean fraudulent.

So the logical operators shown above constantly depend upon at numbers at a complete.
In most cases alternatively you could presumably perchance presumably quite have to job numbers bit by bit. For
that reason the following bitwise operators exist.

  • on init
  • message(“1 .and. 1 is “ & 1 .and. 1) { bitwise “and” }
  • message(“1 .and. 0 is “ & 1 .and. 0) { bitwise “and” }
  • message(“1 .or. 1 is “ & 1 .or. 1) { bitwise “or” }
  • message(“1 .or. 0 is “ & 1 .or. 0) { bitwise “or” }
  • message(“.not. 1 is “ & .not. 1) { bitwise “not” }
  • message(“.not. 0 is “ & .not. 0) { bitwise “not” }
  • stop on

Bitwise operators work the truth is relish logical operators, with the
disagreement that bitwise operators review each and every bit independently.
So a bitwise .and. operator as an instance takes the 1st bit
of the left hand’s aspect designate, the 1st bit of the preferrred hand’s aspect designate,
compares the 2 bits logically and then stores that end result as 1st bit of
the closing end result designate, then it takes the 2nd bit of the left hand’s aspect designate
and the 2nd bit of the preferrred hand’s aspect designate, compares these two bits logically
and then stores that end result as 2nd bit of the closing end result designate, etc.

Comparison Operators

For branches to your program drag alongside with the movement, it is continuously required to review recordsdata
with each and every varied. This is completed by the utilization of comparability operators, enumerated
below.

  • on init
  • message(“Relation 3 < 4 -> “ & 3 < 4) { “smaller than” comparison }
  • message(“Relation 3 > 4 -> “ & 3 > 4) { “bigger than” comparability }
  • message(“Relation 3 <= 4 -> “ & 3 <= 4) { “smaller or equal than” comparison}
  • message(“Relation 3 >= 4 -> “ & 3 >= 4) { “bigger or equal than” comparability}
  • message(“Relation 3 # 4 -> “ & 3 # 4) { “not equal to” comparability}
  • message(“Relation 3 = 4 -> “ & 3 = 4) { “is equal to” comparability}
  • stop on

All these operations yield in a boolean end result which can presumably perchance then
be feeble e.g. with if or while loop statements.

String Operators

Closing but not least, there is strictly one operator for textual swear string recordsdata;
the string concatenation operator &, which
combines two textual swear strings with each and every varied.

  • on init
  • dispute @s := “foo” & ” bar”
  • message(@s)
  • stop on

We have feeble it now continually in varied examples earlier than.

Preprocessor Statements

Similar to low-degree programming languages relish C, C++, Aim C
and the relish, NKSP supports a characteristic of so called preprocessor statements.
These are the truth is “directions” that are “done” or quite
processed, earlier than (and most productive earlier than) the script is done by the sampler,
and even earlier than the script is parsed by the exact NKSP language parser.
It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to evaluate a preprocessor as a extremely frail parser, which is the
first one transferring into touch with your script, it modifies the script code
if requested by your preprocessor statements in the script, and then
passes the (potentially) modified script to the exact NKSP language parser.

When we discussed feedback in NKSP scripts earlier than,
it became as soon as advised that you could presumably perchance presumably observation out obvious code parts to disable
them for a while all through trend of scripts. It became as soon as also advised
all through this language tour that you mustn’t exercise string variables or exercise
the message() characteristic with your remaining manufacturing sounds.
Alternatively these are very at hand things all through trend of your instrument
scripts. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance also have a bunch of extra code to your scripts
which most productive satisfies the reason to create debugging of your scripts extra easy,
which alternatively wastes on the more than a few hand precious CPU time. So what enact you
enact? Delight in advised, you could presumably perchance presumably observation out the respective code sections as
quickly as trend of your script is done. Nonetheless then at some point soon you
could presumably perchance continue to enhance your scripts, and the debugging code could presumably perchance be
at hand, so you can uncomment your complete relevant code sections to procure them
relief. Even as you imagine about this, that will presumably perchance be quite some work every time.
Fortunately there is an more than a few by the utilization of preprocessor statements.

Area a Situation

First you have gotten to characteristic a preprocessor situation to your script. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to enact
that relish this:

SET_CONDITION(situation-name)

This preprocessor “situation” is fine relish some roughly

boolean variable

which is most productive on hand to the preprocessor and by the utilization of
SET_CONDITION(situation-name), right here’s relish surroundings this
preprocessor situation to moral. Delight in with fashioned script
variables, a preprocessor situation name could presumably also be chosen quite arbitrarily
by you. Nonetheless but again, there are some pre-defined preprocessor conditions
defined by the sampler for you. So that you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to most productive characteristic a situation name right here
which shouldn’t be already reserved by a constructed-in preprocessor situation. Additionally
you shall not characteristic a situation to your script but again whenever you happen to have gotten already characteristic it
earlier than somewhere to your script. The NKSP preprocessor will ignore surroundings
a situation a 2nd time and ought to fine print a warning when the script is
loaded, but you ought to raise shut care of it, in consequence of it is some distance more most likely to be a cause for
some worm.

Reset a Situation

To obvious a situation to your script, you could presumably perchance presumably reset the location relish so:

RESET_CONDITION(situation-name)

This is relish surroundings that preprocessor situation relief to fraudulent but again.
You ought to most productive reset a preprocessor situation that formulation whenever you happen to did characteristic it
with SET_CONDITION(situation-name) earlier than. Attempting to
reset a situation that has not been characteristic earlier than, or trying to reset a
situation that has already been reset, will each and every be left out by the sampler,
but but again you could presumably perchance presumably procure a warning, and you ought to raise shut care about it.

Conditionally The exercise of Code

Now what enact you the truth is enact with such preprocessor conditions? It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to exercise
them for the NKSP language parser to either

  • exercise obvious parts of your code
  • and / or to overlook obvious parts of your code

It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to keep that by wrapping NKSP code parts into a pair of either

  • USE_CODE_IF(situation-name)
  • some-NKSP-code-goes-right here
  • END_USE_CODE

preprocessor statements, or between

  • USE_CODE_IF_NOT(situation-name)
  • some-NKSP-code-goes-right here
  • END_USE_CODE

statements. Within the first case, the NKSP code fragment is feeble by the NKSP
language parser if the given preprocessor situation-name is characteristic
(that is that if situation is moral).
If the location shouldn’t be characteristic, the NKSP code fragment in between is
totally left out by the NKSP language parser.

Within the second case, the NKSP code fragment is feeble by the NKSP
language parser if the given preprocessor situation-name is not characteristic
(or became as soon as reset)
(that is that if situation is fraudulent).
If the location is characteristic, the NKSP code fragment in between is
totally left out by the NKSP language parser.

Let’s depend upon at an instance exercise that to outline conditional debugging
code.

  • SET_CONDITION(DEBUG_MODE)
  • on init
  • dispute const %primes[12] := ( 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37 )
  • dispute $i
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE)
  • message(“This script has fine been loaded.”)
  • $i := 0
  • while ($i < num_elements(%primes))
  • message(“Top “ & $i & ” is “ & %primes[$i])
  • $i := $i + 1
  • stop while
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE)
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as brought on with stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on birth
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE)
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as launched with birth stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on controller
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE)
  • message(“MIDI Controller “ & $CC_NUM ” changed its designate to “ & %CC[$CC_NUM])
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on

The constructed-in characteristic num_elements() feeble above, can
be called to invent the scale of an array variable at runtime.
As this script appears to be to be like now, the debug messages will most likely be printed out. Alternatively
it requires you to fine contain shut away the first line, or to observation out the first
line, in dispute to disable all debug code portions in fair a second:

  • { Environment the location is commented out, so our DEBUG_MODE is disabled now. }
  • { SET_CONDITION(DEBUG_MODE) }
  • on init
  • dispute const %primes[12] := ( 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37 )
  • dispute $i
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE) { Situation shouldn’t be characteristic, so this complete block will most likely be left out now. }
  • message(“This script has fine been loaded.”)
  • $i := 0
  • while ($i < num_elements(%primes))
  • message(“Top “ & $i & ” is “ & %primes[$i])
  • $i := $i + 1
  • stop while
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE) { Situation shouldn’t be characteristic, no message will most likely be printed. }
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as brought on with stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on birth
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE) { Situation shouldn’t be characteristic, no message will most likely be printed. }
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as launched with birth stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on controller
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE) { Situation shouldn’t be characteristic, no message will most likely be printed. }
  • message(“MIDI Controller “ & $CC_NUM ” changed its designate to “ & %CC[$CC_NUM])
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on

Now you could presumably perchance presumably bid, you could presumably perchance presumably also keep that by declaring and the utilization of
a fashioned NKSP variable. That’s appropriate, but there are two predominant
advantages by the utilization of preprocessor statements.

  1. Saving Sources
    The preprocessor conditions are most productive processed earlier than the script is
    loaded into the NKSP parser. So in distinction to the utilization of NKSP variables,
    the preprocessor resolution would not extinguish any CPU time or memory
    sources while executing the script. That also skill that variable
    declarations could presumably also be disabled with the preprocessor this formulation
    and thus could presumably also precise sources.
  2. Unsuitable Platform Strengthen
    Since the code portions filtered out by the preprocessor beneath no circumstances create it
    into the NKSP language parser, these filtered code portions could presumably perchance merely moreover
    have code which would have end result in parser errors. For example you
    could presumably perchance exercise a constructed-in preprocessor situation to set up whether or not your script
    became as soon as loaded into LinuxSampler or quite into one more sampler. That formulation
    you could presumably perchance presumably save one script for each and every platforms: NKSP and KSP.
    Accordingly you could presumably perchance presumably
    also check a constructed-in variable to invent the model of the sampler in
    dispute to enable or disable code portions of your script that can
    exercise some newer script formulation of the sampler which keep not exist in older
    model of the sampler.

As a rule of thumb: if there are things that you could presumably perchance presumably switch out of your
NKSP done programming code out to the preprocessor, then you definately ought to
exercise the preprocessor as an more than a few for such things. And relish stated above,
there are obvious things which you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to most productive keep with the preprocessor.

Disable Messages

Since it is quite frequent to swap a script between a trend model
and a manufacturing model, you the truth is keep not have to wrap all of your
message() calls into preprocessor statements relish in the
old instance fine to disable messages. There could be fully a constructed-in
preprocessor situation dedicated to manufacture that job a lot extra very easily for you.
To disable all messages to your script, merely add SET_CONDITION(NKSP_NO_MESSAGE)
e.g. on the very foundation of your script.
So the old instance could presumably also be simplified to this:

  • { Enable debug mode, so set all debug messages. }
  • SET_CONDITION(DEBUG_MODE)
  • { If our user declared situation “DEBUG_MODE” shouldn’t be characteristic … }
  • USE_CODE_IF_NOT(DEBUG_MODE)
  • { … then enable this constructed-in situation to disable all message() calls. }
  • SET_CONDITION(NKSP_NO_MESSAGE)
  • END_USE_CODE
  • on init
  • dispute const %primes[12] := ( 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37 )
  • dispute $i
  • message(“This script has fine been loaded.”)
  • USE_CODE_IF(DEBUG_MODE)
  • $i := 0
  • while ($i < num_elements(%primes))
  • message(“Top “ & $i & ” is “ & %primes[$i])
  • $i := $i + 1
  • stop while
  • END_USE_CODE
  • stop on
  • on existing
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as brought on with stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • stop on
  • on birth
  • message(“Unusual “ & $EVENT_NOTE & ” became as soon as launched with birth stoop “ & $EVENT_VELOCITY)
  • stop on
  • on controller
  • message(“MIDI Controller “ & $CC_NUM ” changed its designate to “ & %CC[$CC_NUM])
  • stop on

It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to then the truth is also add RESET_CONDITION(NKSP_NO_MESSAGE)
at one more portion of your script, which is able to cause all subsequent
message() calls to be processed but again. In explain that formulation you could presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to
without disadvantage enable and disable message() calls of complete particular person
sections of your script, without needing to wrap all message()
calls into preprocessor statements.

What Subsequent?

You have done the introduction of the NKSP proper-time instrument
script language at this point. It’s likely you’ll presumably perchance be in a neighborhood to now dive into the main formulation of the
NKSP language by transferring on to the
NKSP Reference:  Reference documentation of the NKSP real-time instrument script language.”>NKSP reference documentation.
Which offers you a first-rate level idea and clear-slash procure entry to to the main formulation of all
constructed-in functions, constructed-in variables and extra.

You’d also merely moreover have an interest to depend upon at new Real Numbers, Units and Finalness:  New NKSP Core Language Features: Support for real numbers, standard measuring units and finalness.”>
Proper Numbers, Objects and Finalness …

Document Up to this point:  2020-08-29  |  Creator:  Christian Schoenebeck

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