We Build an HTAP Database That Simplifies Your Data Platform


Why an HTAP Database Matters

This article relies on a chat given by Shawn Ma at TiDB DevCon 2020.

TiDB is an commence-supply, distributed, NewSQL database that supports Hybrid Transactional/Analytical Processing (HTAP) workloads. In Could goal 2020, TiDB 4.0 reached total availability, and it has since become a authentic HTAP database.

In this submit, I could portion with you what HTAP is and how TiDB makes the lots of the HTAP architecture.

What’s HTAP?

Historically, there are two sorts of databases: On-line Transactional Processing (OLTP) databases and On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) databases. HTAP databases, however, are hybrid databases that direction of both workloads on the identical time.

Aged info platform architectures

In total speaking, OLTP databases exhaust a row-based storage engine. They store the most modern info, update it in accurate time, and red meat up high concurrency and robust consistency. Every request modifies no bigger than about a rows of information. OLAP databases, however, are extra possible to be columnar databases. They direction of historical info in batch, which approach the concurrency is no longer high and each request touches a neat different of rows.

As you’ll want to perhaps perhaps be conscious, OLTP and OLAP requests like varied necessities, so that they want varied applied sciences. On myth of of that, OLTP and OLAP requests are most frequently processed in isolated databases. Thus, a used info processing blueprint may perhaps perhaps perhaps also glance fancy this:

A traditional data platform with OLTP and OLAP

A used info platform

Within the architecture above, the win info is kept in a web-based database, which processes the transactional workloads. The strategies is extracted from the win database at a out of the ordinary interval — say, once per day — and or no longer it’s loaded into an analytical processing database, reminiscent of a relational info warehouse or a Hadoop info lake. The strategies warehouse or info lake processes the extracted info, which is then exported as a disclose, and is both loaded to an info-serving database or sent relief to the win database.

This direction of is lengthy and complex. The extra procedures your info goes thru, the elevated latency you fetch.

Why HTAP is major

Does your info platform like to be as complex as the one described above? Clearly no longer. An HTAP database helps you streamline the blueprint and offers you accurate-time performance. Let me indicate why.

HTAP describes a database that handles both OLTP and OLAP workloads. With an HTAP database, you are no longer searching for to construct transactions in one database and analytics in one other; it potential that you can attain both. By combining row store and column store, HTAP databases plot on the benefits of both and receive bigger than merely connecting the 2 codecs.

Nonetheless, why attain you’d like an HTAP database? Your frail info platform may perhaps perhaps perhaps even be complex and leisurely, but it for certain easy retains your capabilities running.

The acknowledge lies in the fact that the boundary between transactional and analytical workloads is blurring:

  • OLAP exhaust cases become transactional. As soon as we present stories, we may perhaps perhaps perhaps also moreover like to attain highly-concurrent brief queries and habits minute-vary queries on historical info.
  • OLTP exhaust cases become analytical. When transactions flee, we may perhaps perhaps perhaps also moreover want to construct neat-scale analytics. We can like to give feedback to the win database to toughen the win habits, habits accurate-time analytics on the application info, or build queries across varied capabilities.

Must you glance on the case below, even the database in a customary gross sales platform need to model out a blended and dynamic residence of necessities. On the left are OLTP-fancy workloads, and on the coolest are OLAP-fancy workloads. Within the residence where the 2 ovals intersect, the workloads want both OLTP and OLAP capabilities; that is, HTAP capabilities. Every workload has varied necessities for database parts, reminiscent of scalability, magnificent-grained indexing, columnar storage, accurate-time updates, and high concurrency.

Even a simple sales platform can have mixed requirements

Even a truly easy gross sales platform can like blended necessities

To fulfill these necessities, an HTAP database may want to like both row store and column store. Nonetheless merely striking them together is no longer how it actually works. We want to integrate them as an natural total: let the column and row shops talk with every other freely, and even be clear that that the guidelines is accurate time and constant.

How TiDB implements HTAP

From the foundation, TiDB become once designed as an OLTP database. Now its most attention-grabbing single database has trillions of rows of information, and it’s miles going to support tens of hundreds of hundreds queries per 2d (QPS) in production. Nonetheless to our shock, even sooner than 4.0, some customers already deployed TiDB as a effectively-functioning info hub or info warehouse. For the time being, TiDB supported both OLTP and OLAP workloads.

Then, what’s original in TiDB 4.0? Merely attach, TiDB 4.0 offers an improved HTAP skills by introducing a accurate-time columnar storage engine, TiFlash. TiFlash is a columnar extension of TiKV, the distributed, transactional key-price store. It asynchronously replicates info from TiKV per the Raft consensus algorithm and guarantees the snapshot isolation stage of consistency by validating the Raft index and multi-model concurrency preserve watch over (MVCC).

Now, as proven in the figure below, in the occasion you combine TiFlash with TiKV, TiDB has a scalable architecture of built-in row and column shops.

TiDB 4.0 HTAP architecture

TiDB 4.0 HTAP architecture

In this architecture:

  • TiKV and TiFlash exhaust separate storage nodes to be clear that total isolation.
  • Data in the columnar duplicate is accurate time and constant.
  • There’s no intermediate layer between TiKV and TiFlash, so info replication is instant and simple.
  • It supports level fetch, minute vary scan and neat batch scan with row store indexes and column store. The optimizer uses a price mannequin to settle between column store and row store per the actual workload.

Scalable and accurate-time updates

In TiDB’s HTAP architecture, the row store and column store are scalable and up to this level in accurate time.

Factual fancy TiKV, TiFlash implements the multi-Raft-community duplicate mechanism. The perfect distinction is that TiFlash replicates info from row store to column store. The fundamental unit for replicating or storing info is named a Station.

Furthermore, the guidelines replication would no longer like an intermediate layer. In other info replication processes, info need to trip thru some distributed pipelines, reminiscent of Kafka or other message queue programs, which extend the latency. Nonetheless in TiDB, the replication between TiKV and TiFlash is from learn about to be conscious. There’s no in-between layer, so the guidelines is replicated in accurate time.

The HTAP architecture strikes a steadiness between replication and storage scalability. It uses the identical replication and sharding mechanism as the earlier OLTP architecture. Therefore, the scheduling coverage easy applies to the HTAP architecture, and the cluster can easy horizontally scale out or scale in. What’s extra, you’ll want to perhaps perhaps scale the column store and row store one after the other to meet the needs of your application.

To enable TiFlash replication, you simplest want a single disclose:


Asynchronous replication with accurate-time and constant reads

In TiFlash, the guidelines replication is asynchronous. This plot has two benefits:

  • Column store’s replication obtained’t block transactional processing.
  • Even supposing the columnar duplicate is down, the row store easy works.

Despite the proven truth that the replication is asynchronous, the application continuously learn the most modern info thanks to the Raft consensus algorithm.

The Raft learner mechanism

The Raft learner mechanism

When the application reads info from the learner duplicate in TiFlash, the application sends a learn validation to the Chief duplicate in TiKV after which receives info about the replication progress. If the progress would no longer attain, the most modern info is no longer replicated to the learner duplicate, and the learner duplicate waits until it obtains the most modern info. The total wait length is as minute as tens to hundreds of milliseconds, until the blueprint reaches high utilization.

An optimizer for gleaming different

Prove that the column and row shops need to no longer two self reliant programs, but one natural total. How can the 2 shops coordinate? Nicely, the trick is in our optimizer.

When the optimizer selects a quiz execution conception, it treats the column store as a fine index. Among your total indexes in the row store and the actual column store index, the optimizer selects the quickest index thru statistics and tag-based optimization (CBO). This approach, both the column and row shops are actually apt. You do no longer desire to deem on which storage engine to exhaust in a fancy quiz, for the reason that optimizer makes essentially the most classic resolution for you.

Alternatively, in the occasion you intend to utterly isolate the column store and row store, you’ll want to perhaps perhaps manually specify that the quiz uses for certain one of the 2 storage engines.

The following results, taken from ClickHouse, tag the on-time benchmarking of TiFlash, MariaDB, Spark, and Greenplum on a single, huge desk. For the identical 10 queries, the four databases like varied execution conditions. As you’ll want to perhaps perhaps be conscious, in this architecture, TiDB on TiFlash performs greater than the others.

Benchmarking TiFlash, MariaDB, Spark, and Greenplum

Benchmarking TiFlash, MariaDB, Spark, and Greenplum

Apache Spark works hand in hand with TiSpark

TiDB’s HTAP architecture, with the support of TiSpark, can work seamlessly with Apache Spark. TiSpark is a skinny computation layer built for running Spark on high of TiKV or TiFlash to acknowledge to complex OLAP queries, reminiscent of offering AI computing and a toolbox for info science, apart from to integrating with industry intelligence (BI). By connecting with the Spark ecosystem, TiDB can present services for these complex eventualities.

You may perhaps perhaps perhaps exhaust TiSpark with a Hadoop info lake. In this downside, TiDB is to take into accounta good technique to fetch distributed computing for heavyweight, complex queries.

As soon as we flee a TPC-H benchmark on TiSpark and Greenplum, TiSpark + TiFlash withhold Greenplum to a plot. In most cases Greenplum is quicker, and other conditions TiSpark + TiFlash is quicker, as proven below.

Benchmarking TiSpark+TiFlash and Greenplum

Benchmarking TiSpark+TiFlash and Greenplum

Making exhaust of TiDB in HTAP eventualities

As we like mentioned, in HTAP eventualities, TiDB helps customers carry out a simplified architecture that reduces repairs complexity, offers accurate-time info for capabilities, and improves industry agility.

Exact-time info warehousing

The following draw shows a most current TiDB exhaust case: accurate-time info warehousing. TiDB supports continuous updates, so it’s miles going to with out downside sync info from other OLTP databases. In this architecture, TiDB collects info from a pair of capabilities and aggregates their info in accurate time.

Use TiDB as a real-time data warehouse

Use TiDB as a accurate-time info warehouse

After gathering the guidelines, TiDB can build accurate-time queries, reminiscent of offering stories and accurate-time charts, and, obviously, feeding info to AI.

One discontinue for transactional and analytical processing

Yet any other technique to be conscious TiDB in the HTAP downside is to carry out a one-discontinue database for both transactional and analytical processing. Previously, customers may perhaps perhaps perhaps treat MySQL as a web-based database and replicate info from MySQL to an analytical database or Hadoop in T+1 days. MySQL offers service for online capabilities, and BI instruments connect to the analytical database or Hadoop to construct info analytics.

TiDB as a one-stop database for OLTP and OLAP

TiDB as a one-discontinue database for OLTP and OLAP

Nonetheless for such a downside, you simplest want one TiDB cluster. The win application connects to TiDB’s row store, and the BI server connects to the column store. This architecture no longer simplest reduces the complexity of your architecture, but additionally boosts total performance.

Integrating TiDB alongside with your present info warehouse

Some may perhaps perhaps perhaps also say: Nonetheless I already like a workable info warehousing blueprint. I will be capable of’t merely give them up and migrate all the pieces to TiDB, can I?

Indeed, in the occasion you already exhaust Hadoop or a knowledge warehouse, the earlier exhaust cases may perhaps perhaps perhaps no longer be conscious to your blueprint. Nonetheless TiDB is so flexible and extensible that you’ll want to perhaps perhaps integrate it alongside with your present info warehousing blueprint, fancy in the next draw:

Integrating TiDB with your data warehouse

Integrating TiDB alongside with your info warehouse

The capabilities mixture info into TiDB, which offers a accurate-time layer for accurate-time queries and external info serving. By this accurate-time layer, TiSpark can ship info to the offline Hadoop layer, where Hadoop objects and cleans the guidelines, after which exports the guidelines relief to TiDB in divulge that TiDB may perhaps perhaps support info extra effectively.

In total, ensuing from Hadoop would no longer red meat up high-flee, accurate-time queries, we’re going to have the chance to no longer expose its APIs on to the external service. With TiDB, we give the present blueprint the potential to support info in accurate time.


Within about a months of its GA release, TiDB 4.0 HTAP with the columnar engine has won bigger than 20 production exhaust cases. It helps customers carry out their accurate-time reporting, fraud detection, CRM, info-mart, and accurate-time campaign monitoring. For additional info, actually feel free to establish with us in the TiDB Slack channel.

HTAP red meat up would perhaps be available on TiDB Cloud, the entirely managed TiDB service. Note now for a 2-week free trial here.

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