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Amartya Sen


Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Bengali pronunciation: [ˈɔmort:o ˈʃen]; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist, who since 1972 has taught and labored in the United Kingdom and the United States. Sen has made contributions to welfare economics, social desire notion, financial and social justice, financial theories of famines, resolution notion, reveal economics, public effectively being, and measures of effectively-being of nations.

He’s at instruct Thomas W. Lamont University Professor, and Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University.[4] He became as soon as awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Financial Sciences[5] in 1998 and India’s Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics.

Youth and education[edit]

Amartya Sen became as soon as born in a Hindu family in Bengal, British India. Rabindranath Tagore gave Amartya Sen his title (Bengali অমর্ত্য ômorto, lit. “immortal or gentle”).[6] Sen’s family became as soon as from Wari and Manikganj, Dhaka, each and each in most current-day Bangladesh. His father Ashutosh Sen became as soon as Professor of Chemistry at Dhaka University, Pattern Commissioner in Delhi after which Chairman of the West Bengal Public Provider Price. He moved with his family to West Bengal in 1945. Sen’s mother Amita Sen became as soon as the daughter of Kshiti Mohan Sen, the eminent Sanskritist and pupil of ancient and medieval India, who became as soon as a shut companion of Rabindranath Tagore. Sufficient.M. Sen served as the second Vice Chancellor of Visva Bharati University from 1953–1954.

Sen began his college education at St Gregory’s College in Dhaka in 1940. In the autumn of 1941, Sen became as soon as admitted to Patha Bhavana, Shantiniketan, where he carried out his college education. The college had many innovative sides, equivalent to distaste for examinations or competitive checking out. To boot, the college stressed cultural sort, and embraced cultural influences from the remainder of the field.[7] In 1951, he went to Presidency College, Kolkata, where he earned a B.A. in Economics with First in the First Class, with a minor in Mathematics, as a graduating pupil of the University of Calcutta. While at Presidency, Sen became as soon as diagnosed with oral most cancers, and given a 15% probability of residing 5 years.[8] With radiation therapy, he survived, and in 1953 he moved to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he earned a second B.A. in Economics in 1955 with a First Class, topping the list as effectively. As we dispute, he became as soon as elected President of the Cambridge Majlis. While Sen became as soon as formally a Ph.D pupil at Cambridge (although he had carried out his study in 1955–56), he became as soon as offered the location of First-Professor and First-Head of the Economics Division of the newly created Jadavpur University in Calcutta. He’s aloof the youngest chairman to possess headed the Division of Economics. He served in that location, starting up the brand new Economics Division, from 1956 to 1958.

In the intervening time, Sen became as soon as elected to a Prize Fellowship at Trinity College, which gave him four years of freedom to cease the relaxation he loved; he made the radical resolution to see philosophy. Sen explained: “The broadening of my study into philosophy became as soon as vital for me no longer upright because some of my indispensable areas of ardour in economics uncover moderately intently to philosophical disciplines (as an illustration, social desire notion makes intense grunt of mathematical logic and additionally attracts on precise philosophy, and so does the see of inequality and deprivation), but additionally because I chanced on philosophical study very rewarding on their very possess.”[9] His ardour in philosophy, nonetheless, dates encourage to his college days at Presidency, where he learn books on philosophy and debated philosophical issues. Undoubtedly likely the most books he became as soon as most drawn to became as soon as Kenneth Arrow‘s Social Various and Particular individual Values.[10]

In Cambridge, there had been predominant debates between supporters of Keynesian economics, and the neo-classical economists who had been skeptical of Keynes. Thanks to a lack of enthusiasm for social desire notion in each and each Trinity and Cambridge, Sen selected a titillating enviornment for his Ph.D. thesis, which became as soon as on “The Various of Tactics” in 1959. The work had been carried out earlier, other than advice from his adjunct supervisor in India, Professor A.Sufficient. Dasgupta, given to Sen whereas teaching and revising his work at Jadavpur, below the supervision of the “suited but vigorously intolerant” put up-Keynesian, Joan Robinson.[11]Quentin Skinner notes that Sen became as soon as a member of the secret society Cambridge Apostles all by his time at Cambridge.[12]

In the center of 1960–61, Amartya Sen visited the Massachusetts Institute of Skills, on leave from Trinity College.

Analysis work[edit]

Sen’s work on ‘Various of Tactics’ complemented that of Maurice Dobb. In a creating nation, the Dobb-Sen strategy relied on maximising investible surpluses, affirming fixed exact wages and using the total amplify in labour productiveness, as a consequence of technological commerce, to grab the bustle of accumulation. In other phrases, workers had been anticipated to quiz of no enchancment of their traditional of residing in spite of having became more productive.
Sen’s papers in the gradual 1960s and early 1970s helped obtain the notion of social desire, which first came to prominence in the work by the American economist Kenneth Arrow. Arrow, whereas working on the RAND Corporation, had most famously proven that
when voters possess three or more obvious selections (choices), any ranked repeat balloting design will in as a minimum some eventualities inevitably struggle with what many take to be fashioned democratic norms. Sen’s contribution to the literature became as soon as to instruct below what prerequisites Arrow’s impossibility theorem[13] utilized, as effectively as to enhance and enrich the notion of social desire, informed by his interests in history of business thought and philosophy.

Legit Portrait on the Nobel Prize

In 1981, Sen published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981), a guide in which he argued that famine happens no longer simplest from a lack of food, but from inequalities constructed into mechanisms for distributing food. Sen additionally argued that the Bengal famine became as soon as led to by an city financial reveal that raised food costs, thereby causing hundreds and hundreds of rural workers to starve to loss of life when their wages did no longer encourage up.[14]

Sen’s ardour in famine stemmed from private trip. As a 9-year-archaic boy, he witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943, in which three million other folk perished. This staggering lack of life became as soon as unnecessary, Sen later concluded. He gifts recordsdata that there became as soon as an sufficient food present in Bengal on the time, but particular groups of oldsters including rural landless labourers and city carrier providers take care of barbers did no longer possess the attain to elevate food as its heed rose rapid as a consequence of components that consist of British military acquisition, apprehension purchasing for, hoarding, and heed gouging, all linked to the war in the enviornment. In Poverty and Famines, Sen published that in many circumstances of famine, food affords weren’t vastly lowered. In Bengal, as an illustration, food manufacturing, whereas down on the previous year, became as soon as higher than in previous non-famine years. Sen sides to a spread of social and financial components, equivalent to declining wages, unemployment, rising food costs, and gloomy food-distribution, which led to starvation. His capabilities attain makes a speciality of certain freedom, a individual’s precise capability to be or cease one thing, in build of on detrimental freedom approaches, which are fashioned in economics and simply makes a speciality of non-interference. In the Bengal famine, rural laborers’ detrimental freedom to elevate food became as soon as no longer affected. On the opposite hand, they aloof starved because they weren’t positively free to cease the relaxation, they did no longer possess the functioning of nourishment, nor the functionality to crawl morbidity.

To boot to his vital work on the causes of famines, Sen’s work in the enviornment of reveal economics has had in actuality intensive impact in the system of the “Human Pattern Characterize“,[15] published by the United Nations Pattern Programme.[16] This annual publication that ranks countries on a differ of business and social indicators owes much to the contributions by Sen amongst other social desire theorists in the enviornment of business measurement of poverty and inequality.

Sen’s innovative contribution to reveal economics and social indicators is the notion that of “functionality” developed in his article Equality of What.[17] He argues that governments ought to be measured against the concrete capabilities of their voters. Here’s because high-down reveal will continually trump human rights as lengthy as the definition of phrases remains in doubt (is a “suited” one thing that ought to be offered or one thing that simply can no longer be taken away?). As an illustration, in the United States voters possess a authentic to vote. To Sen, this notion is form of empty. In repeat for voters to possess a ability to vote, they first must possess “functionings”. These “functionings” can differ from the very colossal, equivalent to the provision of education, to the very explicit, equivalent to transportation to the polls. Easiest when such obstacles are eliminated can the citizen in actuality be said to behave out of private desire. It is up to the person society to maintain the list of minimal capabilities assured by that society. For an instance of the “capabilities attain” in apply, see Martha Nussbaum‘s Women folks and Human Pattern.[18]

He wrote a controversial article in The Sleek York Overview of Books entitled “Extra Than 100 Million Women folks Are Missing” (see Missing ladies of Asia), inspecting the mortality impact of unequal rights between the genders in the creating world, severely Asia. Moderately heaps of analysis, including one by Emily Oster, had argued that this is an overestimation, although Oster has since then recanted her conclusions.[19]

In 1999, Sen additional evolved and redefined the functionality attain in his guide Pattern as Freedom.[20] Sen argues that reveal ought to be viewed as an effort to advance the exact freedoms that other folk revel in, in build of simply specializing in metrics equivalent to GDP or profits-per-capita. Sen became as soon as impressed by violent acts he had witnessed as a child main up to the Partition of India in 1947. On one morning, a Muslim each day labourer named Kader Mia stumbled by the rear gate of Sen’s family house, bleeding from a knife effort in his encourage. Thanks to his coarse poverty, he had attain to Sen’s essentially Hindu neighbourhood purchasing for work; his selections had been the starvation of his family or the probability of loss of life in coming to the neighbourhood. The value of Kader Mia’s financial unfreedom became as soon as his loss of life. Kader Mia needn’t possess attain to a antagonistic enviornment trying to obtain profits in these unnerved times if his family would possibly perhaps perhaps perchance even possess managed without it. This trip led Sen to open fascinated about financial unfreedom from a younger age.

In Pattern as Freedom, Sen outlines 5 certain forms of freedoms: political freedoms, financial services, social opportunities, transparency ensures, and retaining security. Political freedoms talk about with the flexibility of the oldsters to possess a notify in authorities and with a honest to stumble on the authorities. Financial services inform each and each the resources for the length of the market and the market mechanism itself. Any focal point on profits and wealth in the nation would wait on to amplify the industrial services for the oldsters. Social opportunities contend with the establishments that present benefits take care of healthcare or education for the populace, allowing other folk to are residing higher lives. Transparency ensures allow other folk to work alongside with some stage of belief and recordsdata of the interplay. Preserving security is the design of social security nets that prevent a community affected by poverty being subjected to homely misery. Sooner than Sen’s work, these had been viewed as simplest the ends of reveal; luxuries afforded to countries that attention on increasing profits. On the opposite hand, Sen argues that the amplify in exact freedoms ought to be each and each the ends and the attain of reveal. He elaborates upon this by illustrating the intently interconnected natures of the 5 indispensable freedoms as he believes that expansion of a form of freedoms can result in expansion in a single more one as effectively. On this regard he discusses the correlation between social opportunities of education and effectively being and how each and each of these complement financial and political freedoms as a wholesome and effectively-educated individual is more fit edifying to maintain informed financial choices and be desirous about fruitful political demonstrations etc. A comparison is additionally drawn between China and India as an instance this interdependence of freedoms. Each countries had been working in direction of creating their economies, China since 1979 and India since 1991.

Welfare economics seeks to spend into consideration financial policies by attain of their outcomes on the effectively-being of the community. Sen, who devoted his occupation to such points, became as soon as known as the “judgment of right and unsuitable of his profession”. His influential monograph Collective Various and Social Welfare (1970), which addressed concerns linked to individual rights (including system of the liberal paradox), justice and equity, majority rule, and the provision of recordsdata about individual prerequisites, impressed researchers to present their attention to concerns with fashioned welfare. Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded edifying recordsdata for improving financial prerequisites for the gloomy. As an illustration, his theoretical work on inequality offered an clarification for why there are fewer ladies than men in India[21] and in China in spite of the actual fact that in the West and in gloomy but medically self sustaining countries, ladies possess lower mortality charges at all ages, are residing longer, and maintain a itsy-bitsy majority of the inhabitants. Sen claimed that this skewed ratio outcomes from the upper effectively being therapy and childhood opportunities afforded boys in these countries, as effectively as sex-selective abortions.

Governments and world organisations going by food crises had been influenced by Sen’s work. His views impressed policy makers to hear no longer simplest to alleviating immediate suffering but additionally to finding methods to replace the misplaced profits of the gloomy—as an illustration by public works—and to defend accurate costs for food. A fascinating defender of political freedom, Sen believed that famines cease no longer happen in functioning democracies because their leaders ought to be more attentive to the requires of the voters. In repeat for financial reveal to be achieved, he argued, social reforms—equivalent to enhancements in education and public effectively being—must precede financial reform.[22]

In 2009, Sen published a guide known as The Realizing of Justice.[1] Per his previous work in welfare economics and social desire notion, but additionally on his philosophical thoughts, Sen presented his possess notion of justice that he intended to be an different to the influential current theories of justice of John Rawls or John Harsanyi. In opposition to Rawls but additionally earlier justice theoreticians Immanuel Kant, Jean-Jacques Rousseau or David Hume, and impressed by the philosophical works of Adam Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft, Sen developed a notion that is each and each comparative and realisations-oriented (in build of being transcendental and institutional). On the opposite hand, he aloof regards establishments and processes as being equally vital. In its build to Rawls’s veil of lack of knowledge, Sen selected the thought experiment of an fair spectator as the root of his notion of justice. He additionally stressed the importance of public discussion (working out democracy in the sense of John Stuart Mill) and a highlight on other folk’s capabilities (an attain that he had co-developed), including the concept of universal human rights, in evaluating numerous states with regard to justice.


Sen began his occupation each and each as a teacher and a study pupil in the Division of Economics, Jadavpur University as a Professor of Economics in 1956. He spent two years in that location. From 1957 to 1963, Sen served as a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Between 1960 and 1961, Sen became as soon as a visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Skills in the United States, where he bought to perceive Paul Samuelson, Robert Solow, Franco Modigliani, and Norbert Wiener.[23] He became as soon as additionally a visiting Professor on the University of California, Berkeley (1964-1965) and Cornell University (1978-1984). He taught as Professor of Economics between 1963 and 1971 on the Delhi College of Economics (where he carried out his magnum opus Collective Various and Social Welfare in 1969).[24]

In the center of this time Sen became as soon as additionally a frequent customer to numerous other premiere Indian financial colleges and centres of excellence take care of Jawaharlal Nehru University, Indian Statistical Institute, Centre for Pattern Analysis, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics and Centre for Analysis in Social Sciences. He became as soon as a accomplice of eminent economists take care of Manmohan Singh (Ex-Prime Minister of India and a veteran economist to blame for liberalizing the Indian economy), Sufficient. N. Raj (Guide to numerous Prime Ministers and a veteran economist who became as soon as the founder of Centre for Pattern Analysis, Trivandrum, which is one amongst India’s premier judge tanks and colleges) and Jagdish Bhagwati (who is legendary to be one amongst essentially the most fascinating Indian economists in the enviornment of World Alternate and at instruct teaches at Columbia University). Here’s a duration regarded as to be a Golden Period in the history of DSE. In 1971, he joined the London College of Economics as a Professor of Economics where he taught until 1977. From 1977 to 1988, he taught on the University of Oxford, where he became as soon as first a Professor of Economics and Fellow of Nuffield College, after which the Drummond Professor of Political Financial system and a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford from 1980.

In 1987, Sen joined Harvard as the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor of Economics. In 1998 he became as soon as appointed as Master of Trinity College, Cambridge,[25] turning into the first Asian head of an Oxbridge college.[26] In January 2004, Sen returned to Harvard. He additionally established the Eva Colorni Belief on the archaic London Guildhall University in the title of his deceased spouse.

In Can also honest 2007, he became as soon as appointed as chairman[27] of Nalanda Mentor Community to note the framework of world cooperation, and proposed structure of partnership, which can perhaps perchance perchance govern the establishment of Nalanda World University Project as a world centre of education seeking to revive the ancient heart of higher finding out which became as soon as most current in India from the fifth century to 1197.

On 19 July 2012, Sen became as soon as named the first chancellor of the proposed Nalanda University (NU).[28] Sen became as soon as criticized as the mission suffered as a consequence of inordinate delays, mismanagement and absence of presence of college on ground.[29] In the shatter teaching began in August 2014. On 20 February 2015, Sen withdrew his candidature for a second time duration.

Membership and associations[edit]

He has served as president of the Econometric Society (1984), the World Financial Association (1986–1989), the Indian Financial Association (1989) and the American Financial Association (1994). He has additionally served as President of the Pattern Analysis Association and the Human Pattern and Ability Association. He serves as the honorary director of the Instructional Advisory Committee of the Heart for Human and Financial Pattern Analysis at Peking University in China.[30]

Sen has been known as “the Judgment of right and unsuitable of the profession” and “the Mother Teresa of Economics”[31][32] for his work on famine, human reveal notion, welfare economics, the underlying mechanisms of poverty, gender inequality, and political liberalism. On the opposite hand, he denies the comparison to Mother Teresa, announcing that he has by no attain tried to note a standard of living of dedicated self-sacrifice.[33] Amartya Sen additionally added his notify to the campaign against the anti-homosexual Share 377 of the Indian Penal Code.[34]

Sen has served as Honorary Chairman of Oxfam, the UK essentially based world reveal charity, and is now its Honorary Guide.[35][36]

Sen is additionally a member of the Berggruen Institute‘s 21st Century Council.[37]

Sen is an Honorary Fellow of St Edmund’s College, Cambridge.[38]

He’s additionally one amongst the 25 main figures on the Files and Democracy Price launched by Journalists Without Borders.[39]

Media and culture[edit]

A 56-minute documentary named Amartya Sen: A Life Re-examined directed by Suman Ghosh particulars his life and work.[40][41] A documentary about Amartya Sen, titled The Argumentative Indian, became as soon as launched in 2017.[42]

A 2001 portrait of Sen by Annabel Cullen is in Trinity College’s sequence.[43] A 2003 portrait of Sen hangs in the Nationwide Portrait Gallery in London.[44]

In 2011, he became as soon as most current on the Rabindra Utsab ceremony at Bangabandhu World Conference Centre (BICC), Bangladesh. He unveiled the quilt of Sruti Gitobitan, a Rabindrasangeet album comprising the total 2222 Tagore songs, brought out by Rezwana Chowdhury Bannya, predominant of Shurer Dhara College of Song.[45]

Max Roser said that it became as soon as the work of Sen that made him obtain Our World in Files.[46]

Affairs of divulge[edit]

Sen became as soon as excessive of Indian flesh presser Narendra Modi when he became as soon as announced as their high ministerial candidate by the BJP. In April 2014, he said that Modi wouldn’t maintain a correct Prime Minister.[47] He conceded later in December 2014 that Modi did give other folk one design of religion that issues can happen.[48] In February 2015, Sen opted out of seeking a second time duration for the chancellor put up of Nalanda University, bringing up that the Authorities of India became as soon as no longer obsessed with him continuing in the put up.[49]

In August 2019, all by the clampdown and curfew in Kashmir for more than two weeks after the Indian revocation of Jammu and Kashmir’s particular location, Sen criticized the authorities and said “As an Indian, I’m no longer happy with the actual fact that India, after having carried out a lot to cease a democratic norm on this planet – where India became as soon as the first non-Western nation to head for democracy – that we lose that reputation on the grounds of motion which had been taken”.[50][51] He regarded the detention of Kashmiri political leaders as “a classical colonial excuse” to prevent backlash against the Indian authorities’s resolution and known as for a democratic solution that can possess Kashmiri other folk.[52]

Deepest life and beliefs[edit]

Sen has been married three times. His first spouse became as soon as Nabaneeta Dev Sen, an Indian writer and pupil, with whom he had two daughters: Antara, a journalist and writer, and Nandana, a Bollywood actress. Their marriage broke up quickly after they moved to London in 1971.[31] In 1978 Sen married Eva Colorni, an Italian economist, daughter of Eugenio Colorni and Ursula Hirschmann and niece of Albert O. Hirschman. The couple had two children, a daughter Indrani, who is a journalist in Sleek York, and a son Kabir, a hip hop artist, MC, and tune teacher at Shady Hill College. Eva died of most cancers in 1985.[31] In 1991, Sen married Emma Georgina Rothschild, who serves as the Jeremy and Jane Knowles Professor of Historical previous at Harvard University.

The Sens possess a house in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which is the unpleasant from which they converse all by the educational year. They additionally possess a house in Cambridge, England, where Sen is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Rothschild is a Fellow of Magdalene College. He most ceaselessly spends his iciness holidays at his house in Shantiniketan in West Bengal, India, where he veteran to head on lengthy bike rides until only in the near previous. Asked how he relaxes, he replies: “I learn plenty and take care of arguing with other folk.”[31]

Sen is an atheist and holds that this will seemingly be associated with one amongst the atheist colleges in Hinduism, the Lokayata.[53][54][55] In an interview for the journal California, which is published by the University of California, Berkeley, he famed: [56]

In some methods other folk had bought veteran to the premise that India became as soon as non secular and religion-oriented. That gave a leg up to the non secular interpretation of India, in spite of the actual fact that Sanskrit had a higher atheistic literature than exists in any other classical language. Madhava Acharya, the excellent 14th century thinker,[57] wrote this rather colossal guide known as Sarvadarshansamgraha, which discussed the total non secular colleges of thought for the length of the Hindu structure. The indispensable chapter is “Atheism”—a extremely solid presentation of the argument in favor of atheism[58] and materialism.

Awards and honours[edit]

Sen has bought over 90 honorary degrees from universities around the field.[59] In 2019, London College of Economics announced the creation of the Amartya Sen Chair in Inequality Analysis.[60]



Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Various, Welfare, and Measurement. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674127784.
Reviewed in the Social Scientist: Sanyal, Amal (October 1983). “Various, welfare and measurement” by Amartya Sen”. Social Scientist. 11 (10): 49–56. doi: 10.2307/3517043. JSTOR 3517043.
  • Sen, Amartya (1970). Collective Various and Social Welfare (1st ed.). San Francisco, California: Holden-Day. ISBN 9780816277650.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1984). Collective Various and Social Welfare (2nd ed.). Sleek York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the united statesA. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. ISBN 9780444851277.
  • Sen, Amartya (1997). Resources, Values, and Pattern. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674765269.
  • Sen, Amartya (1985). Commodities and Capabilities (1st ed.). Sleek York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the united statesA. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. ISBN 9780444877307.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Commodities and Capabilities (2nd ed.). Delhi Sleek York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195650389. Reviewed in The Financial Journal.[68]
Also printed as: Sen, Amartya (November 2003). Inequality Reexamined. Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/0198289286.001.0001. ISBN 9780198289289.
Extract 1. (By capability of Ian Stoner, lecturer, Division of Philosophy, University of Minnesota, readings.)
Extract 2.
  • Sen, Amartya; Nussbaum, Martha (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford England Sleek York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198287971.
  • Sen, Amartya; Foster, James E. (1997). On financial inequality. Radcliffe Lectures. Oxford Sleek York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198281931.
  • Sen, Amartya; Drèze, Jean (1998). India, financial reveal and social different. Oxford England Sleek York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198295280.
  • Sen, Amartya; Suzumura, Kōtarō; Arrow, Kenneth J. (1996). Social Various Re-examined: Proceedings of the IEA convention held at Schloss Hernstein, Berndorf, attain Vienna, Austria. 2 (1st ed.). Sleek York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 9780312127398.
  • Sen, Amartya (1999). Pattern as Freedom. Sleek York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198297581.
Overview in Asia Times.[69]
Chapter-preview hyperlinks – 1.
Chapter-preview hyperlinks – 2.
Overview The Guardian.[70]
Overview The Washington Put up.[71]
Extract: “Imperial illusions: India, Britain, and the unfriendly classes.”
  • Sen, Amartya; Stiglitz, Joseph E.; Fitoussi, Jean-Paul (2010). Mismeasuring our lives: why GDP doesn’t add up: the document. Sleek York: Sleek Press Allotted by Perseus Distribution. ISBN 9781595585196.
  • Sen, Amartya (2011). Peace and Democratic Society. Cambridge, UK: Birth Guide Publishers. ISBN 9781906924393.
  • Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya (2013). An Unsafe Glory: The Contradictions of Up to date India. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846147616..
  • Sen, Amartya (2015). The Nation of First Boys: And Moderately heaps of Essays. India: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198738183..
  • Sen, Amartya (2020). Dwelling in the World: A Memoir. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780141970981..

Various of Tactics (1960), Progress Economics (1970), Collective Various and Social Welfare (1970), On Financial Inequality (1973, 1997); Poverty and Famines (1981); Utilitarianism and Beyond (jointly with Bernard Williams, 1982); Various, Welfare and Measurement (1982), Commodities and Capabilities (1985), The Standard of Residing (1987), On Ethics and Economics (1987); Hunger and Public Action (jointly with Jean Drèze, 1989); Inequality Re-examined (1992); The Quality of Life (jointly with Martha Nussbaum, 1993); Pattern as Freedom (1999); Rationality and Freedom (2002); The Argumentative Indian (2005); Identity and Violence: The Phantasm of Future (2006), The Realizing of Justice (2009), An Unsafe Glory: India and Its Contradictions (jointly with Jean Drèze, 2013), and The Nation of First Boys (2015).

Chapters in books[edit]

  • Sen, Amartya (1980), “Equality of what? (lecture delivered at Stanford University, 22 Can also honest 1979)”, in MacMurrin, Powerful M. (ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 1 (1st ed.), Salt Lake Metropolis, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 9780874801781.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (2010), “Equality of what?”, in MacMurrin, Powerful M. (ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 4 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220, ISBN 9780521176415.
Pdf version.
Reprinted in Sen, Amartya (2012), “Pattern as functionality expansion”, in Saegert, Susan; DeFilippis, James (eds.), The community reveal reader, Sleek York: Routledge, ISBN 9780415507769.

Journal articles[edit]

Lecture transcripts[edit]

News coverage of the 1998 Romanes Lecture in the Oxford University Gazette.[72]


Chosen works in Persian[edit]

A listing of Persian translations of Amartya Sen’s work is on hand right here

Be taught about additionally[edit]


  1. ^ a b Sen, Amartya (2010). The speculation of justice. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780141037851.
  2. ^ Deneulin, Séverine (2009). “Guide experiences: Intellectual roots of Amartya Sen: Aristotle, Adam Smith and Karl Marx”. Journal of Human Pattern and Capabilities. 10 (2): 305–306. doi: 10.1080/19452820902941628.
  3. ^ “President Obama Awards 2011 Nationwide Humanities Medals”. Nationwide Endowment for the Humanities. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  4. ^ “University Professorships – Harvard University”. Harvard University. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  5. ^ “Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen honoured in US”. The British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  6. ^ One on One – Amartya Sen, retrieved 11 June 2020
  7. ^ “Amartya Sen – Biographical”. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  8. ^ Riz Khan interviewing Amartya Sen (21 August 2010). One on One – Amartya Sen (Tv manufacturing). Al Jazeera. Event happens at 18: 40 minutes in. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  9. ^ “Amartya Sen – Biographical: Philosophy and economics”. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Financial Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  10. ^ “Amartya Sen – Biographical”. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  11. ^ “Amartya Sen – Biographical: Cambridge as a battleground”. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Financial Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  12. ^ Professor Quentin Skinner and Alan Macfarlane (2 June 2008). Interview of Professor Quentin Skinner  – portion 2 (Video). Cambridge. 57: 55 minutes in – by YouTube.
  13. ^ Benicourt, Emmanuelle (1 September 2002). “Is Amartya Sen a put up-autistic economist?”. Put up-Autistic Economics Overview (15): article 4. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  14. ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (26 October 1998). “The exact causes of famine: a Nobel laureate blames authoritarian rulers”. Time. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  15. ^ United Nations Pattern Programme, UNDP, ed. (2010). “Overview | Celebrating 20 years of human reveal”. Human Pattern Characterize 2010 | 20th anniversary edition | the exact wealth of nations: pathways to human reveal. Sleek York, NY: United Nations Pattern Programme. p. 2. ISBN 9780230284456. …the first HDR known as for a titillating attain to economics and reveal – one which put other folk on the centre. The attain became as soon as anchored in a new imaginative and prescient of reveal, impressed by the creative ardour and imaginative and prescient of Mahbub ul Haq, the lead writer of the early HDRs, and the ground-breaking work of Amartya Sen.Pdf version.
  16. ^ Batterbury, Simon; Fernando, Jude (2004), “Amartya Sen”, in Hubbard, Phil; Kitchin, Non-public shut; Valentine, Gill (eds.), Key thinkers on enviornment and build, London: Fable, pp. 251–257, ISBN 9780761949626.Draft
  17. ^ Sen, Amartya (2010), “Equality of what?”, in MacMurrin, Powerful M. (ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 4 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220, ISBN 978-0521176415.Pdf version.
  18. ^ Nussbaum, Martha (2000). Women folks and human reveal: the capabilities attain. Cambridge Sleek York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521003858.
  19. ^ Oster, Emily; Chen, Gang (2010). “Hepatitis B does no longer present male-biased sex ratios in China” (PDF). Economics Letters. 107 (2): 142–144. doi: 10.1016/j.econlet.2010.01.007.
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  55. ^ Chanda, Arup (28 December 1998). “Market economy no longer the panacea, says Sen”. Rediff On The Discover. Retrieved 16 June 2014. Despite the actual fact that this is a private matter… But the reply to your question is: No. I cease no longer imagine in god.
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  57. ^ Now not to be at a loss for phrases with Madhvacharya of Dwaitya vedanta the 13th century saint, this guide is by a titillating thinker of the 14th century
  58. ^ The guide has no longer bought the relaxation to cease with atheism simplest the first chapter is Purva paksha Mīmāṃsā of atheism, the remainder of the chapters put a Purva paksha for relaxation of the philosophies that originated in India and the final chapter that is lacking in the guide and later editions touch on Advaita Vedanta.
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