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Network Standards Through History


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It is the 3com EtherLink II! Image

I’d potentially must dig up an extinct networking e-book to resolve out 10base2/thinnet. it looks to be fancy thing more or less thing that won’t in actuality going to have a ton of recordsdata on-line for it.

though in actuality or no longer it’s miles no longer sizable complicated. The tl;dr is that you just wish BNC-T connectors, BNC between each PC, and terminators on each discontinue. Image

you do no longer have hubs or switches fancy how 10BASE-T and derivatives have, you unswerving wire it as a generous long line of computers.

which has the glaring plot back that if the cables from one computer uncover tousled, you no longer have A community, possibilities are you’ll perhaps have two separate networks for every half of

T-connectors are those little T-formed issues.

The terminators are one-sided issues you build at both discontinue.

They close the brand from bouncing off the discontinue of the cable and causing interference. Image

10Base2 (this more or less networking) used to be current early on resulting from it used to be relatively low price. Network playing cards were costly, definite, nevertheless the amount of additional hardware you wanted used to be minimal, and scaled very simply with what number of nodes you had on-line.

this IS Ethernet, btw, unswerving fancy the ever-demonstrate form feeble on the novel time. Image

Ethernet is the link-stage protocol, and it will also be carried over just a few physical layer protocols.

The cat5-cable form we expend on the novel time is some variation on the 10Execrable-T form, T for “twisted pair”.

so named resulting from internally or no longer it’s an unshielded cable restful of just a few twisted pairs of cable. Image

twisted pair cabling is feeble resulting from each pair kinds a balanced circuit, and any electrical noise caused into that is also roughly an identical in each wires.

Then the receiver can subtract out the in fashion interference, getting handiest the suggestions.

and it looks to be doing it this means works well sufficient for most circumstances and is more affordable and more uncomplicated to work with than shielding the cable.

(Even supposing possibilities are you’ll perhaps consistently shield the cable afterwards, and uncover basically the most simple of every worlds)

here is when in contrast with the 10base2 or thinnet shown in my first post, which uses coaxial cable.

This is the more or less cable feeble for TV connections, the build there is a heart cable, an insulating sheath, then a woven mesh of but any other connector, then presumably more shielding after that Image

It is some distance a more advanced means to forestall interference on the inner connector, and whereas it works totally, it finally ends up in cables which would possibly be more costly and stiffer, making them no longer easy to route via desks, partitions, and below-floor tiles

Ethernet started with neither of these, it started with thicknet.

This used to be a honest thicker cable than celebrated coax, with the weirdness that you just unswerving had one wire for the total community.

And also possibilities are you’ll perhaps well articulate “foone, is no longer in actuality that how 10base2 works, the build you develop it as a line?”

nevertheless no, that’s a web page of cable segments which act as one generous wire, with connections between them.

10base5 in actuality WAS one wire, with out a breaks in it. And but possibilities are you’ll perhaps have more than 2 computers. How?

The reply is “vampire taps”.

You hooked as much as the center of the cable, with out slicing it. Image

Vampire taps are these stress-free little devices which clamped onto the cable and had a generous spike within the center, which’d stab unswerving via the cable’s insulation and shielding and slay contact with the conductor within. Image

The connectors to the cable ended up being generous and bulking thanks to this, as they had to slay an right connection and could perhaps well no longer likelihood disconnecting as they were moved around.

This also made it annoyingly no longer easy to re-wire your community, as possibilities are you’ll perhaps well predict. Image

This form of connection is why you in total discover those generous DB-15 connectors on extinct community playing cards, fancy this one. Image

that’s Attachment Unit Interface, or no longer it’s designed to lend a hand you to connect onto the vampire faucet. They did no longer unswerving originate a connection unswerving into the card, since the physical structure of that is at likelihood of be nearly unimaginable.

So as a replace you would have a Medium Attachment Unit, which used to be the system that curved onto the 10base5 cable itself. Image

Then you bustle a cable from that system into your community card. Image

which made routing this generous thick cable mighty more uncomplicated, and likewise made it more resilient.

That possibilities are you’ll perhaps stick the cable and Medium Attachment Unit below a floor tile or on the support of a wall, then then unswerving bustle the AUI cable to your computer.

a quantity of footage are from here, which is a generous venture to originate a 10base5 community within the stylish day (2012, on the very least):…

Ethernet used to be on the initiate developed at Xeroc PARC within the mid 1970s, by loads of of us together with Robert Metcalfe.

in 1979 he left Xerox, and fashioned 3Com, and then he worked with Xerox, DEC, and Intel to promote Ethernet as an originate celebrated, first printed in 1980.

Xerox gave up the trademark on “Ethernet” as section of that assignment (and thank god for that, since the assorted name used to be calling it the Digital Intel Xerox celebrated, or DIX), and it got formalized as IEEE 802.3 in 1983.

Ethernet caught on for a couple reasons, nevertheless basically it looks to be to were that:

1. possibilities are you’ll perhaps well capture networking equipment for it from just a few producers, in web page of being tied into a explicit company’s networking ecosystem

2. it used to be in a position to adapt to new physical layers

#2 is required resulting from Ethernet started as thicknet, then moved to thinnet, then has stayed with some variant of 10nefarious-T for a long time.

The link stage protocols being an identical intended it used to be doubtless to bridge these physical networks together, making it straightforward to incrementally upgrade, in web page of having to throw out your whole community and originate over

10nefarious-T, btw, started as an experiment at AT&T to develop a community as a broad name topology. It used to be called “StarLAN”, appropriately sufficient.

Various kinds of networks must be specified by assorted ways.

10base5/thicknet and 10base2/thinnet each expend a bus structure, the build there is one predominant path that goes via every computer on the community. Image

10nefarious-t uses a broad name, the build possibilities are you’ll perhaps have a hub/switch that has a 1-to-1 connection to each computer, individually.

This is more beneficial resulting from possibilities are you’ll perhaps’t accidentally grasp down your complete community by messing up one computer’s connection, nevertheless it no doubt does require more cable in most circumstances

plus it now requires a hub or switch, which bus topologies in no device did.


which makes it the primary community develop to expend as networks grow.

fancy, articulate possibilities are you’ll perhaps have a generous HQ that’s loads of ground of a constructing.

with a bus, it’s good to always wire the cable via the total computers on the first floor, then trail as much as the 2nd floor, then as much as the third floor

and then someone knocks over a computer on the 2nd floor and each the first and third floor networks are lower off from each assorted. so or no longer it’s very fragile, and tricky to wire.

nevertheless with a tree topology, or a broad name-of-stars, possibilities are you’ll perhaps have a broad name topology for the first floor, then one for the 2nd floor, then one for the third floor, and all of those test with one generous switch someplace.

so no longer handiest is inserting off one computer on the 2nd floor no longer a problem (it handiest impacts them, resulting from or no longer it’s a broad name)

nevertheless even at the same time as you grasp out the hub/switch to your complete 2nd floor, it unswerving impacts the 2nd floor, no longer the first or third.

oh, correction! I wasn’t appropriately brooding about how this works:

at the same time as you were on a bus community and lost a computer on the 2nd floor, the first and 3rd ground will no longer be simply lower off from each assorted, they’re lower off from themselves.

grasp below consideration the terminators?

yeah, the 10base5 and 10base2 community varieties want terminators at each discontinue of the bus to forestall brand reflection, and whereas you accidentally damage the cable within the center, there is no terminator there, so the community is quite undoubtedly unnecessary except fixed.

the assorted generous networking abilities elephant within the room has already been hinted at: the ring topology.

Why would you develop your community as a ring?

and the reply is Token Ring, an IBM celebrated and competitor to Ethernet. In this case, the community is designed critically fancy a bus develop, excluding that it loops around on the discontinue. Image


The community devices curved within the usage of these generous hermaphroditic (has that name been changed but? it looks to be fancy it would possibly be sometime…) connectors. Image

These connectors were too plump to suit onto an ISA/MCA enlargement card, so the playing cards as a replace would expend a DB-9 connector (on the left) Image

Then you would expend a DB-9-to-token-ring cable (technically called the IBM Files Connector) to hook it into the community.

And for the reason that connectors were hermaphroditic, possibilities are you’ll perhaps well with out considerations connect that straight to the MAU or into a cable from the MAU Image

Wikipedia aspects out these were colloquially called “Boy George” connectors…. resulting from obviously the first thing you produce with a hermaphroditic connector is originate jokingly calling them after the androgynous vocalist of the brand new-wave band Culture Membership. Image


anyway, networks, could perhaps just no longer you?

I’m writing this on a gigabit ethernet community, which entails some fiber hyperlinks and energy-over-ethernet which is a whole assorted stress-free tangential enviornment.

for my allotment, I manufacture no longer mediate possibilities are you’ll perhaps beat basically the most simple, first community… sneakernet. Image

anyway at the same time as you enjoyed my long thread about networks, in actuality be at liberty to ship me a dollar or two on ko-fi so I will be able to lastly fulfill my dream of playing Doom over a token ring LAN

or red meat up me in celebrated with a monthly donation on my patreon:

I in actuality must close now resulting from I must trail grasp medicines and such nevertheless I must show veil one closing thing:

Token ring networks were designed with the certainty that breaking the ring would damage your complete community, unswerving? so they deliberate for that.

so along with your MAU connections (presumably handiest specifically the later Managed Fetch right of entry to Objects), you really had two devices of rings, in total a clockwise and counterclockwise one Image

which intended that if at any point the ring broke, they could simply bypass the fault and trail the assorted means across the ring.

but any other stress-free truth:

Token ring is no longer in actuality unswerving a ragged-past-1980s thing.

the most up-to-date token ring celebrated is a GIGABIT version from 2001.

ok admittedly no gigabit token ring hardware ever surfaced resulting from ethernet had so totally eaten its lunch by then, nevertheless IBM and the assorted companies within the token ring working group were peaceable updating it as gradual as this century.

Also really in actuality be at liberty to unswerving me on anything I got immoral here. I’ve read a bunch about networking nevertheless moderately mighty all my functional ride is with 10nefarious-t.

I’m no longer exactly from the abilities the build it used to be the handiest remaining celebrated, nevertheless I’m from the “too uncomfortable to manage to pay for any networking except fancy 2001” abilities

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