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Peter Weir’s ‘Witness’ (2017)

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By Sven Mikulec

One of many valuable figures of the Australian Recent Wave, Peter Weir, earned the honor of the movie-appreciating community with such motion pictures because the mystery drama Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975), the famed anti-battle historical drama Gallipoli (1981) and the Mel Gibson and Sigourney Weaver-led drama The Year of Residing Dangerously (1983). It became as soon as the actual moment for a step forward, and a newly established police thriller known as Peep seemed fancy a true opportunity for Weir to fresh his expertise to the American public. Unlike his outdated initiatives, on which he labored from the muse and whose creator he became as soon as in the stout sense of the word, both writing the reviews, working with the screenwriters or authoring the script himself, Peep became as soon as a barely queer case in the Australian grasp’s career: he joined the movie after the screenplay became as soon as already performed and Harrison Ford became as soon as already connected to significant particular person. Producer Edward S. Feldman, on the time in a contend with 20th Century Fox, bought the screenplay inspire in 1983. The script became as soon as on the muse named Known as Dwelling and became as soon as written by William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace, per a yarn they developed with Pamela Wallace. They primarily based mostly the script on an episode of the acclaimed TV mask Gunsmoke they wrote a decade earlier. The fresh knowing became as soon as that of a tough Philadelphia cop hiding in a conservative, normal Amish community while searching to protect a truly crucial search to his contemporary case. Feldman became as soon as very extra special , however the script switched arms all round Hollywood for reasonably some time and Fox deemed it “too rural.” Even when Feldman announced Harrison Ford became as soon as residing to significant particular person, Fox gathered expressed disinterest. Paramount, on the other hand, agreed to achieve it and, when Weir’s tasks relating to The Mosquito Cruise’s pre-manufacturing loosened, he signed on to divulge. As Weir himself later explained, he had the wish to work as one in every of those directors from the 1940s, a employed hand who would find assignments from the studio and merely attain them, without nurturing an especially receive emotional attachment to the yarn.

Peep became as soon as his first American movie, and even supposing he became as soon as employed when the venture had already taken off, this didn’t live him from intervening. “On Peep, I gave my notes to the writers and it wasn’t working the style I’ve described, so I rewrote it and sent it inspire to them to assign aside it thru their typewriter,” Weir recalled, as reported in Virginia Campbell’s tall part for Movieline 9 inspire in June 1998. “They were anxious at what I’d accomplished.” He accredited their fresh knowing and noticed tall seemingly in the surprising conflict of cultures embodied in the characters of the hardened city policeman and the rural community that offers him with nurture and refuge, but realized what aspects of the yarn wished adjusting. “I assign aside extra Amish ambience in it. And I took out the overt portion of the fondness yarn—I belief it became as soon as barely tacky. I lessened the violence on the tip,” explained Weir, adding the screenwriters didn’t share his imaginative and prescient. “The writers belief I became as soon as so destroying the part that one in every of them mentioned to me, to my astonishment, ‘don’t you would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance per chance be searching to be strolling up the steps on the Dorothy Chandler Pavillion to find your Academy Award?’.” Peep premiered in February 1985, and a year later bought on the least eight Academy Award nominations, including Most efficient Image, Most efficient Director and Most efficient Actor, neatly-behaved in the Original Screenplay and Modifying categories. With a truly receive field place of work outcome in the inspire of him, Peter Weir established himself as a neatly-behaved and desired young filmmaker in Hollywood.

The yarn of a betrayed cop aged to seeing brutality and violence desiring again from an isolated community that practically hasn’t changed or tailored for the final couple of hundred years would possibly perhaps per chance well hold turned out fully diverse from what Weir envisioned. First of all, with Indiana Jones and Han Solo’s recognizable face on the billboards, Peep would possibly perhaps per chance well were made as a typical police thriller, tantalizing, dynamic and per chance reasonably forgettable: a cop forced to flip against his atrocious colleagues in a bloody pursuit of justice and revenge. The route would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance need furthermore been fast obvious from crime and concentrated on the normal very unlikely fancy yarn on the heart of the movie, providing the target market with but one other against-all-odds romantic dramedy that would possibly perhaps per chance well sell a plethora of tickets on Valentine’s Day. Moreover, the Amish backdrop and the glaring collision of tradition and modernity, purity and crime, 18th-century village and civilization, would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance need inspired a truly silly comedy with the central inspiration drawn from the diversities of the dear protagonists. Fortuitously sufficient, the authors and especially Weir had something fully diverse in tips. The Amish community, on the side of their traditions, customs and formulation of life, assist as an integral portion of the movie, no longer a picturesque backdrop to the dear arc of the yarn.

The never-realized fancy affair between Harrison Ford’s cop and Kelly McGillis’ Amish widow is handled with subtlety, grace and realism. In location of exquisite the colossal target market with a sweaty, wheat-covered, sticky sex scene at lifeless night corner of the barn, Weir opted for a gentle, Jane Eyre-fancy, Victorian come to romance: everything’s in the eyes, the fervour and chemistry reach no longer from an uncovered breast, but from the search. And the sexual tension between the comely widow and her beautiful guest is palpable to the degree of being a further character in the movie: all executed by adhering to very strict principles and uncharacteristic restraint. “In (the outmoded) days, there became as soon as in truth large movie censorship, so movie makers had to be very inventive in the style they showed sexual attraction. It resulted in some wonderfully romantic motion pictures. What I’ve accomplished is reimpose the Hays Code on myself,” mentioned Weir. Even the violence is restrained, sporadic, reaching a extra special stronger affect when shown and considered thru the eyes of the innocent, aestheticized and fastidiously belief-out—honest imagine the corn silo sequence. “Peter walked throughout the farm procuring for how to extinguish someone beautifully,” explained John Seale, Weir’s director of photography on the movie. Weir’s movie is a wonderfully surprising combination of a thriller and a romantic yarn with extra special extra depth than it became as soon as anticipated from both genres.

Folks in most cases order to me they grab my Australian motion pictures to the American ones. To me, they’re all reviews and likewise you boom them. You know, they’re residing right here or they’re residing there. But, certain, I deem it’s extra the case I no longer work with the studios. And I started working with Peep, 1984, thru Master and Commander, let’s order, 2004. So, that became as soon as my studio interval, and they no longer fabricate those forms of motion pictures. As somebody from a studio mentioned to me no longer too long prior to now, “We’re no longer in that form of change anymore.” —Peter Weir

 


This became as soon as furthermore Harrison Ford’s first honest in the uncharted, extra advanced territory, and is on the fresh time regarded as one in every of his finest, if no longer the finest, efficiency. He repeated his collaboration with the filmmaker the very subsequent year on The Mosquito Cruise. “I provide (Weir) with something, he affords me with something. We both enjoy pleasure in the change,” mentioned Ford in Digby Diehl’s article published in American Movie’s December 1986 sing. “Peter has a imaginative and prescient and it’s no longer continuously articulatable, if that’s a word. I’m a one who calls for good judgment and even a plodding form of technique to hold the entire cards on the table. I’m the assistant storyteller.” Written by Earl W. Wallace and William Kelley, with Weir’s uncredited work on the script, shot by the Australian cinematographer John Seale, who would later grab an Oscar for his work on The English Affected person, with the French composer Maurice Jarre’s (Doctor Zhivago, The Put together, A Passage to India) find and Thom Worthwhile’s (Crimson Morning time, Thelma & Louise) editing, and with the receive supporting roles of Danny Glover, Josef Sommer, Alexander Godunov and Lukas Haas, Peep is a pleasure to return to even thirty-two years after its free up.

Within the muse there were two pages of debate all the procedure thru which Harrison Ford explained why he became as soon as leaving and the Amish lady gave her emotions to him. It became as soon as very literal, and I lower it all because we didn’t need it. The producer told me that the studio would never bag it because we desire to know what they are feeling. I knew that if I had accomplished my job effectively, you would possibly perhaps per chance well know precisely how they were feeling by the time it became as soon as all lower together. —Peter Weir

 

Peep’ significance lies no longer greatest in its craft but furthermore in the context within which it noticed the sunshine of day: a Hollywood movie advocating peace and team spirit hitting theaters while the cinematically neatly-behaved Chilly War became as soon as gathered in stout swing. No longer to fresh the real fact it handled an isolated, foreign community with appreciate and sympathy, which became as soon as no part of cake inspire then, and appears to be like especially relevant in our fresh as effectively. But one in every of the dear reasons it’s so crucial to us is its exquisite epilogue, which sheds light on the movie’s seemingly straightforward title. Because the Amish villagers fetch throughout the decided policeman neck-deep in crime, he lowers his gun and affords up the futile fight and chooses to lead clear of bloodshed. The villagers merely stand there and watch him—they fresh no threat to his safety, they’ve no energetic honest in the warfare, they are straightforward observers. But they are staring at him, witnessing his actions, passively and peacefully forcing him to take care of what he’s doing. Weir implies there’s a tall energy in our skill to note, honest fancy there’s a tall responsibility in the arms of the community: don’t flip your inspire, don’t avert your search, search what’s occurring round you. In this interpretation, it’s straightforward to switch searching to search out why there’s no article the in the movie’s title: is it seemingly that the title is a minute part of recommendation for the target market?

A monumentally crucial screenplay. Screenwriter must-be taught: Earl W. Wallace & William Kelley’s screenplay for Peep [PDF1, PDF2]. (NOTE: For academic and research functions greatest). The DVD/Blu-ray of the movie is readily accessible at Amazon and other on-line retail outlets. Fully our perfect recommendation.

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From Virginia Campbell’s tall part for Movieline 9 inspire in June 1998.

You did good transforming of the distinctive script for The Truman Tell. What originate of rewriting did you attain on, order, Peep, for which you had far less time?


Having started in filmmaking by writing my hold discipline cloth—which I did because I had to, it became as soon as no longer my strongest swimsuit—I’ve continuously wished to tailor discipline cloth so that by the time it comes to shooting it has change into mine in a profound formulation. I aged to shaggy dog yarn with writers when I started with them by announcing, “I’m going to delight in your script, it’s going to change into portion of my blood.” And I’d search info from them to again me. Here is the actual formulation I can attain it. On Peep I gave my notes to the two writers and it wasn’t working the style I’ve described, so I rewrote it and sent it inspire to them to “assign aside thru their typewriter.” They were anxious at what I’d accomplished.

What had you accomplished?


I assign aside extra Amish ambience in it. And I took out the overt portion of the fondness yarn—I belief it became as soon as barely tacky. I lessened the violence on the tip. The writers belief I became as soon as so destroying the part that one in every of them mentioned to me, to my astonishment, “Don’t you would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance per chance be searching to be strolling up the steps on the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion to find your Academy Award?” On all my other motion pictures, there became as soon as no effort.

You in overall consume silence as a replacement of debate to manufacture emotional points. I’d guess reasonably just a few your script changes are honest deletions of phrases.


On Peep that prompted extra waves than every other changes. On the tip of the movie, when Harrison came to instruct true-bye to Kelly McGillis, the distinctive script had him explaining why he became as soon as leaving and she or he explained how she became as soon as feeling. I lower the two pages and mentioned, “If I’ve accomplished my job, they must gathered be in a residing to honest peek at one another.” The writers and producer were concerned the target market wouldn’t ticket, and Jeffrey Katzenberg, who became as soon as the head of manufacturing at Paramount, flew out to discuss about it. Jeff asked me to mask the scene, and after I did, he mentioned, “That’ll work.”

ON DIRECTING ‘WITNESS’ BY PETER WEIR

“The 2 honest stood there admiring one another, with silence, playing the out of the ordinary thing about her bare physique. Again with the uninteresting environment accompanied with the flickering of the lamp to provide a romantic scene. Again, the relationship became as soon as skittish by the problem of cultural warfare, where John explains the next day where he makes his speech ‘Rachel, if we made fancy final night, you’ll hold to switch away or I’ll hold to carry.’ The cultural variations mask that the two are unable to be together thanks to their beliefs.”

PETER WEIR: WHY I DIRECT THE WAY I DO

Director Peter Weir excerpt from FilmCraft: Directing by Mike Goodridge, published by Focal Press.

I grew up going to the motion pictures as a kid on Saturday afternoons, but no longer like reasonably just a few my American contemporaries who knew that movie became as soon as going to be their world, I had no knowing what I became as soon as going to achieve. Then, when I became as soon as 20, I went to Europe in the style many young Australians did and gathered attain. When I went, it became as soon as extra of an hobble because we passed by ship, and that hobble—5 weeks at sea—residing me on this path because I purchased though-provoking in the ship’s revue.

There became as soon as a closed-circuit TV on the ship, which had never been aged, and we asked the leisure officer if we would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance consume that to achieve a comedy mask. So by the time I purchased off the ship at Athens, I knew that I needed to achieve something in the dwelling of acting or writing. I purchased to London planning to find a job in theater, and I did—promoting tickets. I kept on writing and did a runt bit sketch comedy on beginner night at The Troubadour Membership with friends from the ship. Aid in Australia, I carried on working with my friends on revue exhibits and made just a few brief motion pictures funded by the federal government brief-movie fund.

On my second day out to London in 1970, on a search grant from the federal government movie fund, I particular to be wide awake of movie and resolve in Australia. My generation became as soon as the dear that decided to reach inspire versus closing in London. My first script, The Autos That Ate Paris, became as soon as accredited by the federal government honest-movie fund, and I became as soon as very fortunate to be synchronous with the emergence of this fund.

My first honest became as soon as a tremendous trip. I had residing myself the purpose of making a honest sooner than I became as soon as 30, as I felt that if I didn’t find going sooner than that age I wouldn’t hold that chance again. The movie opens with what looks fancy an advertisement for cigarettes, with a true-taking a look for couple in a sports activities automobile out in the nation-order, and they’ve an accident and are killed. So that you just would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance look for the sketch comedy affect. I’d grown up with the Hammer fear motion pictures, and town of secrets and tactics in the movie fits in with that form of tradition.

Having been a performer on stage and in my brief motion pictures, I had a tall rapport with actors. I belief that acting and writing would be my career for a interval. The directing in truth came reasonably behind, and because we had no change in Australia on the time, you didn’t grow up on the feet of giants. While on the one hand that became as soon as no longer easy because we had no one to inspire us, on the an analogous time we had nothing to beat or overcome. We were the dear.

 


It became as soon as a lucky interval for a young filmmaker in Australia. We were all on the starting up blocks together, and I could perhaps per chance well per chance imagine 20 other promising directors who didn’t reach thru. I deem some of us ran out of steam; they didn’t hold a feel for it. I deem it became as soon as honest natural to me by some skill. I have to hold absorbed it thru the pores of my pores and skin from going to those Saturday afternoon motion pictures as a runt bit one. You learned the grammar fancy a runt bit one learns a foreign language—very speedy.

I continuously imagine the target market. I deem it goes inspire to performing when we did those are residing exhibits. My co-author and I would write the sketches together and if the target market became as soon as with you, we’d develop the sketch, and conversely if the target market wasn’t responding, you’d tighten it up or lean extra in direction of the slapstick. I deem I purchased to in truth feel an target market and, as anxious because it’s far for a filmmaker, preview audiences can make it simpler to with the movie. I can feel them thru that outmoded mechanism of being on stage and I can fabricate reasonably just a few changes in the cutting room because those emotions.

I felt that I turned assured with what I became as soon as doing on my third honest, The Final Wave, which in my hold private university became as soon as some originate of graduation movie. Earlier than that, I could perhaps per chance well per chance analyze why something hadn’t labored, but I chanced on it very anxious to work out why something had labored that I’d no longer deliberate. Why did the target market find caught up in that issue portion of the movie? In most cases it’s a collision of parts that you just would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance grab apart and try to take care of. That is portion of discovering out on the job, I guess.

To an extent, I deem I do know what’s going to work and what won’t now. There are continuously moments where a movie won’t connect with the public and likewise you belief it would. It’s seemingly you’ll per chance well per chance per chance honest never know why it has failed. But on the other hand, it’s reasonably spell binding how a movie takes on a life of its hold. This brings me to a effectively-aged analogy, which is that the movie is the runt one and likewise you give birth to it and elevate it, but it be crucial to let it meander. And as with a runt bit one, it takes on its hold issue persona and at a obvious level, it be crucial to reduction that. You should always have to descend that scene or attain extra of those scenes for the explanation that movie wants it. Hundreds of this is accessible in the cutting room.

The cutting room is fancy the closing writing stage, though you attain it in a diverse formulation and likewise you’ve bought a finite amount of discipline cloth, but an unlimited selection of recommendations to combine that discipline cloth. I deem if it’s bought a spark, the spark’s continuously going to be there, but it indubitably’s a case of making it as brilliant as you would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance. There would possibly perhaps be no such thing as a formulation you would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance add that spark if it’s no longer in the discipline cloth. Likely I originate a sense of ‘scale’ in my motion pictures for a wide range of reasons: one became as soon as the tall affect of touring to Europe in 1965, getting a sense of distance by touring by ship, which became as soon as a gift I didn’t realize on the time. Within the intervening time, indubitably, you would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance find any place within 24 hours. I deem that day out gave me a sense for hobble, for environment off on a hobble, which is mirrored in reasonably just a few my motion pictures.

 


In just a few of my motion pictures, I try to mask how tall, unknowable and attention-grabbing the sphere is because it’s the style it aged to feel to me. From residing on the bottom of the sphere in 1965, the sphere felt gargantuan, and likewise you would possibly perhaps per chance well greatest look for Paris in motion pictures. The opposite, reasonably diverse circumstance, became as soon as that in the early 1970s, very few of our actors in Australia would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance order dialogue and intensely few of us would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance write it. So I tended to delete dialogue and let the camera boom the yarn.

Here’s an instance: you hold two of us in a café, and the scene opens with the waitress bringing over espresso—she slops the espresso down, it spills into the saucer and she or he asks, “You should always have something else?” That sets the scene into a atrocious temper. But when the actress couldn’t order the strains because they honest sound hopeless and amateurish, I told her no longer to instruct something else, honest to assign aside the espresso down. But I gathered are searching to mask that this lady is terribly sloppy, so I search info from the dresser of us to find a pair of rotten outmoded slippers, and we assign aside a bandage with blood on it around her finger. So then I attain a shut-up of her feet flip-flopping throughout the ground, a shut-up of the two of us having espresso turning to switch searching to search out her impending. One of them looks at her hand and I attain a shut-up on the bandage. She slops the espresso down, and the two of us switch the coffees to 1 aspect.

Within the early days, that became as soon as the form of survival map I would note. I furthermore most traditional soundless motion pictures, and even to recently, I watch just a few favorites sooner than I fabricate a movie honest to reeducate myself in storytelling without synchronous sound.

Each time I’ve written a script for an American studio or financier, or rewritten a script which already has popular writers, I’ll descend dialogue. Executives in the U.S. in overall procure this puzzling for the explanation that yarn isn’t explicable without the dialogue, and that’s how they be taught a script—they be taught the dialogue and scan the descriptions, that are in overall comely normal. I are inclined to develop the descriptions and lower the dialogue.

I purchased into a vital space with my first American movie, Peep. On the tip of that movie, the police detective, conducted by Harrison Ford, is leaving the farm to return to his life in Philadelphia, and he goes to instruct goodbye to the Amish lady. Their romance is clearly no longer going to switch any place. You look for him utilizing away and passing the Amish man coming down the hill, and likewise you realize that she can hold a life with him. Within the muse there were two pages of debate all the procedure thru which Harrison explained why he became as soon as leaving and she or he gave her emotions to him. It became as soon as very literal, and I lower it all because we didn’t need it. The producer told me that the studio would never bag it because we desire to know what they are feeling. I knew that if I had accomplished my job effectively, you would possibly perhaps per chance well know precisely how they were feeling by the time it became as soon as all lower together. They honest peek at one another. It’s hopeless; it’s previous phrases. The government from the studio, Jeffrey Katzenberg, who became as soon as at Paramount on the time, flew out to check with me and instructed I shoot it both recommendations honest in case. That seemed a smash of time to me, so Jeff asked me to coloration a image in phrases for him and boom it fancy a yarn. So, over espresso in a cafe in Lancaster Pennsylvania, I told him. He belief it sounded shapely.

 


Casting is attention-grabbing. You deem you know what form of actor you would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance per chance be searching to play a portion after which you meet somebody who fully alters that perception. I did a TV movie in 1979 in Australia known as The Plumber, and there became as soon as the portion of the plumber, who became as soon as a working-class man, and a couple who were university graduates. The wife had been residing, so I auditioned husbands and plumbers, and I performed one audition with a truly true actor for the husband, and he mentioned he continuously gets the husband parts and would grab to play the plumber. He auditioned, and he became as soon as out of the ordinary.

I noticed that I became as soon as casting in a clichéd formulation by casting actors who continuously play working-class forms. By taking somebody who in overall performs the heart-class form and striking them in the plumber’s sneakers, it brought something else. And he bought the portion. It became as soon as a out of the ordinary lesson for me in the 1970s, and I withhold that cramped recklessness in the casting interval, as I deem I attain when I’m shooting. I fancy the postulate of a managed mission, but it be crucial to switch away room for the wild or surprising. I’m going that onto my casting directors so that they don’t change into too conservative, and that resulted in casting director Dianne Crittenden coming up with the postulate of Alexander Godunov to play the Amish rival for the young lady’s affections in Peep. I knew of him a runt bit from the press but didn’t deem he became as soon as an actor. She mentioned she had met him and he had allure and a out of the ordinary smile. So we had him in, and he couldn’t in truth order dialogue completely, but he did hold this allure that you just would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance per chance portray.

You should always have to belief the actors, and they’ve to belief you. I deem that’s what the dear conferences are all about, whether they are casting conferences or meeting a significant particular person for lunch or dinner. The verbal portion of it’s far the least crucial aspect of the meeting. I deem you sense somebody and they sense you. You should always have to seem for if there is a connection between your sensibilities. If there isn’t that form of unseen handshake, I don’t deem you would possibly perhaps per chance well ever work effectively together.

When I became as soon as getting ready The Final Wave, I needed tribal Aboriginals in the movie, and in issue, I needed Nandjiwarra Amagula to play the tribal elder. I went to switch searching to search out him in Darwin where he became as soon as rehearsing some dances, and my manual mentioned that I hold to gathered honest meander up and take a seat with him and discuss. He hadn’t agreed to achieve the movie but, but he had been told the yarn broadly. So I went up and sat with him on a seaside for four hours while he rehearsed, and we didn’t order a word, but I started to feel fancy he became as soon as checking me out by some skill. On the tip of the day, he asked if he would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance carry his wife to the shoot. That became as soon because it. I had passed the audition, and it became as soon as a true lesson for me.

I deem essentially the most anxious times for me fall into two areas. As each and every filmmaker knows, time is the enemy all the procedure thru shooting because there honest isn’t sufficient time in the day and likewise you’ve bought to find the sequence on the fresh time and the climate would possibly perhaps per chance well per chance no longer be what you desire. But the life like aspect of it’s far dwarfed by the inventive challenges, in the occasion you know something is no longer working or you’re no longer reaching far sufficient for something. The challenges are continuously mainly inventive. —Peter Weir, from FilmCraft: Directing by Mike Goodridge

PETER WEIR: DAVID LEAN LECTURE

Peter Weir delivers BAFTA’s annual David Lean Lecture in December 2010.

 


A director of distinction and finesse, Peter Weir discusses his filmmaking style and offers advice to first time directors.

“To be a director is to hold creativeness, to boom your self a diverse yarn each and day by day. Here is something you exercise, fancy your physique in the gym. You should always have to be taught and browse and browse, to boot to note motion pictures and above all, try to withhold your sense of right and unsuitable birth, without the Net or textual snort messaging. You should always have to search out a time to be bored because then you dream and likewise you originate to mediate, to be wide awake of issues, to the sphere, withhold the soor birth for the unconscious.” —Master Class with Peter Weir

Listed below are several photos taken in the inspire of-the-scenes all the procedure thru manufacturing of Peter Weir’s Peep. Photographed by Josh Weiner © Paramount Photographs, Edward S. Feldman Production. Intended for editorial consume greatest. All discipline cloth for academic and noncommercial functions greatest.

 

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